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First Semester Exam Review 2014
Earth Science Units 1 - Unit 6
Terms in this set (70)
Cold, dry air affecting the northern United States in winter often comes from
continental polar air masses
When a rapidly moving cold air mass overtakes a slow-moving warm air mass, the result is a(n)
When a warm air mass and a cold air mass meet and neither can move the other, the result is a(n)
Weather associated with an anticyclone is generally
dry and clear
A funnel-shaped cloud that touches Earth's surface is called a
One of the best places to seek protection during a tornado is
in the basement of a well-built building
When a warm air mass overtakes a cold air mass, it forms a
Thunderstorms form within this type of cloud
large cumulonimbus clouds
Hurricanes typically form over
warm ocean water
The eye of a hurricane
The prevailing westerlies, the major wind belts over the continental United States, generally push air masses from
west to east
The greenhouse effect is
the process by which gases hold heat in the atmosphere
When all of the grains in a rock are large and easy to see, the rock is described as
To describe a rock's texture, geologists determine
the size, shape, and pattern of the rock's grains
Igneous rock that cools very quickly when it forms may have a texture that is
smooth and shiny with no visible grain
Which type of rock is most likely to contain fossils?
What type of igneous rock most commonly makes up the ocean floor?
What is the most abundant igneous rock in the continental crust?
Partially decomposed plant material that was deposited in swamps creates the sedimentary rock known as
Most geologists think that the movement of Earth's tectonic plates is caused by
convection currents in the mantle
fast-moving, hot lava
A place where two plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions, is known as a
What is Pangaea?
The name of the supercontinent that existed millions of years ago
Old oceanic crust is more dense than new oceanic crust because it is
The place where two plates come together is known as a
Stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions is called
Earth's inner core is
a dense ball of solid metal
The type of seismic waves that arrive at the surface first and move by compressing and expanding the ground like an accordion are called
Primary waves (P waves)
What type of earthquake wave (seismic) can travel through both liquids and solids?
Primary waves (P waves)
The pliable layer called the asthenosphere is part of which layer of the Earth?
An area where magma melts through the crust in the middle of a plate is called a
Earth's magnetic field results from movements in the
When you touch a hot pot or pan, energy moves from the pot to your hand. This is called
heat transfer, specifically conduction.
The viscosity of magma depends upon its silica content and its
How do geologists classify metamorphic rocks?
According to the arrangement of the grains that make up the rock
Which scale would most likely be used to tell how much earthquake damage was done to homes and other buildings?
The Mercalli scale
Earth's lithosphere is broken into separate sections called
Which type of fossil can provide clues about the activities of ancient organisms?
Any form of water that falls from clouds is called
Scientists that study the forces that make and shape the planet Earth are called
A storm is
a violent disturbance in the atmosphere
Convection takes place because
cold air is more dense than warm air
The atmosphere is
the layer of gases that surrounds the Earth
Wind speed is measured by an
Winds are caused by differences in
The best way to protect yourself in an earthquake is to
drop, cover, and hold
The Cenozoic era is often called the Age of
Why are index fossils useful to geologists?
They tell the relative age of the rock in which they occur
The transfer of heat energy through empty space is called
Radioactive decay occurs when atoms of an unstable element
break down to form atoms of another element
The time it takes for half of the radioactive element to decay is the element's
Geologists obtain indirect evidence about Earth's interior by
recording and studying seismic waves
Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and continents began to form during the first several hundred million years of
The part of the Earth system that includes Earth's solid, rocky, outer layer is the
Radioactive dating enables geologists to determine
the absolute ages of rocks
Earth's atmosphere traps energy from the sun, which
allows water to exist as a liquid
The layer of Earth's atmosphere where weather occurs is the
The most dangerous aspect os a snowstorm is often the
What two conditions are required for cloud formation?
1. Cooling of the air
2. Presence of particles in the air
What triggers the small earthquakes that occur around a volcano before an eruption?
upward movement of magma
Tornado Alley includes which states?
Texas, Kansas, Oklahoma, Florida, Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Mississippi, and Alabama
What is the primary driving force of the nitrogen cycle?
What human activity has added the most carbon to the atmosphere?
burning fossil fuels
The conversion of nitrate to nitrous oxide and nitrogen gas is called
Approximately what percentage of the atmosphere is carbon dioxide?
The largest reservoir of carbon is the
True or False? Energy is NOT recycled in an ecosystem.
True or False? Photosynthesis fixes carbon is green plants as simple sugars.
It is difficult to integrate nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into the nitrogen cycle because
few organisms can directly use atmospheric nitrogen gas
The ozone layer is found in what layer of the Earth's atmosphere?
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