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Ap Euro Mid-Term
Terms in this set (79)
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
A doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations. Separation of church and state
Revival of learning or "rebirth" that ocurred in Europe between 1300 and 1600
Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means."
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. From roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century followed by this movement spreading into the Northern Europe during 1400-1600
restrained, objective style of art
Art=accuracy, first use of linear perspective, distance=realism
a method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
War of the Roses
struggle for the English throne (1455-1485) between the house of York (white rose) and the house of Lancaster (red rose) ending with the accession of the Tudor monarch Henry VII
type of European architecture that developed in the Middle Ages, characterized by flying buttresses, ribbed vaulting, thin walls, and high roofs
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
Differences/similarities between northern/Italian Renaissance's
NR happens later than Italian.
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
It was nailed to a church door in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517 and is widely seen as being the catalyst that started the Protestant Reformation. It contained Luther's list of accusations against the Roman Catholic Church.
General wave of religious dissent against the Catholic church; generally held to have begun with Martin Luther's attack on Catholic beliefs in 1517; included many many MANY varieties of religious belief
1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings.
Justification by Faith
Martin Luther's concept that faith alone is enough to bring salvation
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Church of England
Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife
Queen of England from 1558 to 1603; the English Renaissance flourished during her reign
church that King Henry VIII of England creates so that he can marry and divorce as he pleases
Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation)
instead of transforming Catholic Church after Protestant Reformation (did get rid of indulgences), stop the spread of Protestantism, both by reforming the Catholic Church, and also by persecuting as heretical those deemed to go too far
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
17th century Europe, elaborate and detailed artwork, drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, and music
French Catholic missionaries who attempted to convert Native Americans and save them from fur trappers. Important explorers and geographers.
Age of Exploration
Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans.
Lighter wood, heavier sails, fixed rudders, multiple masts
Charting stars, sextant (charting time on horizon), mariners compass, map making, systems of grids by Ptolemy returned and polished into Longitude/Latitude. Better ships that could carry more weapons and soldiers.
Slender, long-hulled vessels utilized by Portuguese; highly maneuverable and able to sail against the wind; key to development of Portuguese trade empire in Asia.
His ideas on science influenced Muslim and European scholars from Roman times until the Scientific Revolution. He was a Greco-Roman writer famous as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Greek, and held Roman citizenship.
Motivations of Exploration
God, Glory, Gold
Effects of Exploration
Loss of land , death of millions of native Americans due to diseases
the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.
gold and silver in the form of bars
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Cavaliers and Roundheads
Cavaliers supported King Charles. Roundheads-Puritan members of Parliament, supported Parliament, Oliver Cromwell was their leader opposed Charles.
English Civil War
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
Elizabeth to James to Charles
Belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
killing of a king
1. Magna Carta 2. Petition of Right
1. the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215.
2. Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land.
In 1688 Parliament removed King James 2nd from the throne and asked William and Mary Netherland to rule
movement that began in Europe in the late 1600s as people began examining the natural world, society, and government; also called the age of reason
A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
State of Nature
The basis of natural rights philosophy; a state of nature is the condition of people living in a situation without man-made government, rules, or laws.
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Baron de Montesquieu
French aristocrat who wanted to limit royal absolutism; Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others, thus preventing despotism and preserving freedom. This greatly influenced writers of the US Constitution. He greatly admired British form of government.
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
Writers during the Enlightenment and who popularized the new ideas of the time.
The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
Committee of Public Safety
Established and led by Robespierre, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Adopted August 26, 1789, created by the National Assembly to give rights to all (except women).
The Estate System
a politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility
Bourbon Dynasty (Louis & Marie)
Dynasty in France started by the reign of King Henry IV, powerful and EXTREMELY wealthy, rulers of this Dynasty wanted hegemony (dominant power), wanted to see shift of balance of power
French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793)
French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794)
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
A moderate group that fought for control of the French National Convention in 1793.
Storming of the Bastille
Destruction of the prison seen as the true start of the French Revolution. Symbol of the kings power.
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
2) Owns newspaper (manipulation)
3) Rosetta Stone
4) Marries Josephine
5) Established French national bank 1800s (saves economy)
6) Concordat of 1801 (1. Dominance over spiritual leader 2. Re-connects catholic conservatives to church)
7) Lycee system of education
8) Legion of honor 1802
9) Napoleonic code 1804
10) Emperor Napoleon I
became Emperor of the French in 1804: Napoleon crowned himself to show that his power didnt depend upon church approval
Established after the Reign of Terror / National Convention; a five man group as the executive branch of the country; incompetent and corrupt, only lasted for 4 years.
linear war but technology had outpaced tactics which results in more death
Napoleon made peace with the Roman catholic church and in 1801 made an agreement with the pope (Held him in jail until he agreed to have peace😂) He extended the freedom of religion to protestant Christians and Jews, this won him a great deal of support. In 1804 Napoleon promulgated the Civil code, a revised body of civil law, which helped to stabilize French society. The civil code affirmed political and legal equality of all adult men and established a merit based society which individuals qualified for edu and employment because of talent rather than social standing. When Napoleon crowned himself emperor, he founded a dynasty that set his family above and apart from the people in whose name they ruled.
A comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon. Divides civil law into: Personal status by property. Purpose was to reflect the ideas of the French Revolution- mainly equality (for men)
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
Russia refuses to accept continental law so France goes to war with them. Russia practices Scorched Earth military strategy so they destroy all of France's supply lines until his supply line is 2,000 miles
Because of this 500,000 men die from hypothermia and starvation
Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington was an Anglo-Irish British Army soldier and statesman, widely considered one of the leading military and political figures of the first half of the nineteenth century. Commissioned an ensign in the British Army, he rose to prominence in the Napoleonic Wars, eventually reaching the rank of field marshal.
The site of Napoleon's defeat by British and Prussian armies in 1815, which ended his last bid for powers
The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
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