Upgrade to remove ads
WHAP Half-Time Review
Terms in this set (100)
The Byzantine Empire
It was formerly the Eastern Roman Empire. It controlled trade on the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Its capital was Constantinople and it was a highly centralized empire.
This Byzantine ruler in the 6th century C.E. reconquered much of the territory previously ruled by Rome. He initiated an ambitious building program, including the magnificent cathedral - the Hagia Sophia and codified a law code.
The Code of Justinian
It was a compilation of the complex system of Roman laws and it became the system of laws for the Byzantine Empire. It was influenced by the Twelve Tables of Roman Law or Roman written laws that included concepts like innocent until proven guilty and equality under the law.
It was a political-religious system in which the secular ruler is also head of the religious establishment as in the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine emperor was both ruler of the empire and leader of the Orthodox Christian Church. The emperor appointed the patriarch of the Orthodox Church.
Point of View
It is a particular attitude or way of considering a matter. It is the perspective through which an account is understood. It is important to remember though that a person may have differing points of view depending on his audience. In front of the emperor, he says one thing but behind the emperor's back, he writes another thing.
Corpus iuris civilis (body of the civil law)
It was the Code of Justinian or the Byzantine emperor Justinian's attempt to codify all Roman law. It has influenced later Western law codes.
The Law of the Twelve Tables
In 40 B.C.E., the the Roman government wrote the laws of Rome on 12 tablets. As the laws were written down, all citizens knew what the laws were. These laws included concepts that protected citizens against the power of powerful men. These laws were some of the laws codified later in Justinian's Code.
The Bantu Migration
They originally lived in West Africa and learned to farm. As agriculture increased population and as slash and burn farming or shifting cultivation was their method of farming, they were forced to move in search of more land. The traveled and settled throughout sub-Saharan Africa. But they did not move in one group and one time. They moved in waves of groups unfolding over time.
The Effects of the Bantu Migration
They spread agriculture, iron-making and their language throughout sub-Saharan Africa. They provided a common linguistic foundation to a very diverse cultural region due to diverse physical or geographic features.
He was a ruler of a great Persian empire, the Achaemenid Empire. His dynasty lasted from the 500s B.C.E. to the 300s B.C.E. He was a very tolerant ruler and allowed the Jews to return to their homeland and he ruled a very highly centralized empire. He made all decisions and personally trained his royal governors or satraps.
When an empire has evidence of this, the ruler makes all decisions for his empire. The government is in charge of even the smallest detail in the most remote province. To be this is to experience top-down rule.
It is a system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials. It is a large, complex organization composed of appointed officials. There is a tax department; there is a department of agriculture. There are lots of departments and lots of government officials.
The Royal Road
It was a road in the Persian Empire, stretching over 1,600 miles from Susa in Persia to Sardis in Anatolia. It helped to unify the Persian Empier. It allowed rulers like Cyrus and Darius to communicate with distant parts of the empire in a reasonable time and send troops to rebellious areas. It ensured that the ruler could control his empire and that its government was highly centralized.
These governors of the provinces in the Persian Empire ensured that the king's mandates were carried out in the empire. As the Achaemenid Empire was vast, the king could not be everywhere at the same time but his provincial governors could ensure that his wishes were carried out. These provincial governors were personally trained by the King Cyrus.
It was the earliest civilization in the Americas. It developed in Mesoamerica. Its people domesticated corn, tapped rubber trees and built massive stone heads. It was a "mother civilization" and it laid the patterns of civilization for future civilizations in the Americas.
Olmec Stone Heads
These massive stone carvings were developed by the earliest Mesoamerican civilization.
These massive stone carvings probably represented kings or gods or maybe even warriors.
Easter Island Civilization
A civilization that developed in the South Pacific and was famous for its massive stone heads. Its people, the Rapa Nui, disappeared from their homeland. As such, this civilization did not influence later civilizations. It was not a mother civilization.
The Impact of Agricultural Surplus on Labor
When farmers produce more food than they can consume, some people are freed from food production. These individuals can devote time to other task besides farming. They can build monuments; they can teach; they can even become accountants. Extra food means some people can do other things.
It is the holy book of Islam. According to Muslims, it records Allah's revelations to Muhammad. It is the word of God to Muslims.
According to Muslims, he is the "Seal of the Prophets" or the last prophet. After Muhammad, there will be no more revelations from God. He is the founder of Islam. Islam is a monotheistic, ethical and Abrahamic religion.
It is a tax paid by non-Muslims, usually dhimmis, in Islamic Empires. Jews and Christians or "People of the Book" according to Muslims were allowed to freely practice their religions in Islamic empires as long as they paid this special tax and obeyed the Caliph or Sultan.
They are "protected people" in Islam. They are fellow monotheists (generally) or "People of the Book" (the Bible). As long as they pay the jizya, a tax, and obey the Islamic ruler, they can practice their religions freely.
Religious Tolerance in Islamic Empires
In general, Muslim rulers were religiously tolerant. They allowed Jews and Christians (and usually Hindus in the Mughal Empire) to freely practice their religions as long as they paid the jizya and obeyed the sultan. They did not force conversion or persecute or mistreat Jews and Christians in their empires.
Importance of Jerusalem
It is a holy city to Jews, Christians and Muslims. To Jews, it was the location of their holiest temple in a land they believed God had given to them. For Christians, it was the place where they believe Jesus was crucified and resurrected. For Muslims, it is believed that Muhammad took a "Night Journey" to this city.
Foot-Binding in the Song Dynasty
It was popularized during the Song Dynasty. It encouraged women to have small feet as the smaller the foot the more beautiful a woman was believed to be. It was patriarchal because it objectified women. A woman's value was in her alleged attractiveness to men which is objectification.
It is male dominance. In grants men power over women. Men dominate government and business. Men have higher status. Women are viewed as inferior.
Status of Women in Sub-Saharan Africa during the Post-Classical Era
They had high status as they were valued as fieldworkers and mothers. They performed the tasks of agriculture because they relied on the digging stick. The plow had not replaced the digging stick thereby allowing women to farm and men to herd. And as farming was valuable, women were seen as more valuable than their female counterparts elsewhere.
Europeans referred to China as this in the post-classical era. This is what Marco Polo called China.
Impact of the Pax Mongolica on Silk Road Trade Routes
The Mongols provided peace and security on the Silk Roads. They had conquered the entire length and breadth of the Silk Roads. They reduced bandit attacks and made the route safer. As a result, trade increased. The safer a trade route is the more people who will travel it.
Point of View
It is the perspective from which a story is told. It is how the person telling the story understands what happened and what was important. It differs based on who is telling the story. Remember the African proverb, "When lions have their historians, history will not glorify the hunter."
Native American Indians Working in Mines of Spaniards in the Americas
Native American Indians were exploited working in mines like Potosi. They worked long hours in dangerous conditions. Families for miners had funerals BEFORE the men entered the mines. The work was so dangerous that many men never returned home. They died in the mines.
It is a forced labor system. Slavery, serfdom, indentured servitude and labor taxes are forms of forced labor. The worker cannot quit. He is forced to labor even under difficult and dangerous conditions.
It is a form of coerced labor. It is Native American Indian slavery. A Spaniard was given a land grant from the king with all of the Indians on the land. The Spaniard had to convert the Indians to Catholicism. The Indians were forced to labor for the Spaniards. It was a brutal and cruel system.
It is rising prices and has many causes. Sometimes it is caused by a decrease in value of currency. If money is worth less, than prices must rise.
Impact of Silver on Spain's Economy
As Spain conquered the Americas, it acquired lots of silver. There were many silver deposits in the Americas. As Spain was flooded with silver, the value of silver decline thereby leading to a decline in the value of currency and thus inflation or rising prices.
Devaluation of Silver
The more of a thing there is - the less value it has. When Spain conquered the Americas, it gained lots of silver. More silver meant that each piece of silver had less value. This means less value.
Monsoon and Indian Ocean Trade
Monsoons are seasonal winds in the Indian Ocean. These seasonal winds blow predictably in one direction for six months of the year and then in the opposing direction. These seasonal winds helped navigators trade in the Indian Ocean. The winds brought merchants to foreign lands and then home again.
It is cultural blending. It occurs when cultural ideas mix with one another. An example of this is Swahili culture and language. Swahili is a combination of Bantu and Arabic. It has elements of both. It is evidence of cultural blending.
It is a spreading out of traders. It occurred in the Indian Ocean and it meant that traders from one area would often settle in another area. They might marry local women and thus their children would be raised by parents from two different cultures. Their children would have elements of both cultures in their consciousnesses.
Mombassa, Sofala, and Mogadishu
They are Swahili city-states located on the coast of East Africa. These city-states were instrumental in Indian Ocean trade. East Africa provided gold, ivory and slaves in the Indian Ocean Trading Network.
He was a Chinese philosopher living in the "Age of Warring States" during the Zhou Dynasty. In this time of chaos and disorder, he sought to restore peace and harmony to China. He believed this was only possible through proper roles. When individuals acted according to their societal roles, order developed. With order, peace ensued.
It is the Confucian belief that sons must honor and obey parents and ancestors. The good son cares for his aging parents and does not travel wide and far leaving his aging parents to themselves. Thus, merchants had low status. They violated this.
The Five Relationships
To Confucius, these were the most important relationships in a society. They were: emperor and subject, father and son, husband and wife, elder brother and younger brother, and friend and friend. In four of the five relationships, there was a clear superior and a clear inferior. The superior had to set a good example and care for the inferior. The inferior had to obey. When each person acted properly and according to his role, order, peace and harmony ensued.
Confucianism and Social and Political Order
This Chinese philosopher believed in this connection. When people act according to proper roles, there is order in society. When there is order in society, there is peace and harmony. When there is order in government, there is peace and harmony too. The emperor sets a good example for his people and is benevolent. His people then follow his good example and obey. Where there is order, there is peace.
Class Hierarchy in Colonial Latin America
The most powerful people are peninsulares. They are born in Spain and are appointed to top jobs in the colonial government and are often wealthy landowners. Creoles are next. Ancestrally speaking, they are 100% European but born in the Americas. They are often wealthy landowners but not appointed to top jobs in government because they are viewed as provincial. Mestizos follow. They have European and Indian ancestry. They might be shopkeepers, farmers or artisans. Indians and Africans are the most exploited. They are often enslaved and mistreated. Birth and race determined class in this system.
Why the Colonial Hierarchy in Latin America
When Spain conquered the Americas, the conquerors gave the wealth and power to their people. They took the land of the Native American Indians. They took the wealth of the Native Americans. They gave themselves the spoils of conquest. If to the victor goes the spoils, then to the conqueror goes the land, resources and power.
Periodization in History
It is to divide history into "chunks" in order to better understand the historical forces that shape the period. For example, a student might study the Age of Imperialism. By examining the forces that allowed for conquest in the 1800s and the impact of conquest on conquered peoples, the period is easier to understand. All historical study must be subdivided to make it more meaningful.
It is combining diverse elements. For example, a musician might play Blues Rock. In the artist's music, there are elements of blues and elements of rock to create a new style. This is true in writing history too. Perhaps the scholar will examine economic, political and cultural forces. It is this combining of diverse elements that can really bring a commentary to life. Students do this do when they make connections between different regions.
It is to explain the meaning of information, words, or actions It is to make sense of something. Analysis is much more complicated than this. In analysis, the event, the historical context, the interpretation - all of these things are considered. But this is to make sense of information, words or actions.
Alexander the Great
This Macedonian king was a great conqueror. He conquered the Greek city-states, Egypt, the Persian Empire and even battled in India. He was a great general and would have kept on fighting had his men not tired and in their homesickness demanded to return home. But even though he died relatively young, he spread Greek culture and greatly impacted world history.
It is a Greek-like culture that was spread by Alexander the Great. It combined elements of Greek, Egyptian, Persian and even Indian cultures. It spread Greek ideas like columns in architecture and rationalism. It even influenced art in the Indian subcontinent. As a result of it, Buddha was portrayed as a man in Indian art. Prior to its introduction, Buddha was often drawn as an empty chair for no-self or as the wheel of life as in Samsara or reincarnation.
It is the planning of a city or a design for a city. Manhattan has evidence of it in that streets are on a grid pattern. There is First Avenue and Second Avenue. There is Forty-Second Street and Forty-Third Street. It is only in the Village when it gets a bit confusing with Bleeker Street and Mott Street. But when a city is on a grid pattern then this has occurred. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus River Valley had evidence of it.
It was a capital city of China. It was formerly the capital of the Han, Sui and Tang Dynasties. It was a vibrant city with lots of commercial activities.
Trade and China
The Han established the Silk Roads and trade has always been vitally important to China. Luxury goods like silk and porcelain travelled on the Silk Roads. Under the Mongols, trade greatly increased as the Mongols secured the route. As a result of all of this trade, Chinese markets often had many goods.
It is a tool with a rounded end that is used for crushing and grinding substances such as spices or grains. It is a tool used by people who cultivate crops.
Impact of Improved Food Production on Population
When there is more food, there are more people. The Neolithic Revolution provided more reliable calories to more people. Champa rice provided more rice by being drought-resistant and allowing for double cropping. When there is more food, there will always be more people.
Genghis (Chinggis) Khan
He unified the Mongols. He unified the nomads from the Central Asia steppes (dry grasslands). His people were skilled horseback riders and he had a skilled cavalry. He used psychological warfare or frightened people into surrender. He conquered a vast empire. That empire eventually stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Black Sea. He was religiously tolerant but he was very interested in the collection of tribute. He could be ruthless to enemies but generous to friends.
Their homeland was the steppes or the dry or arid grasslands of Central Asia. They were nomads and pastoralists who followed their herds. They were united by Genghis (Chinggis) Khan and built the largest contiguous land empire in history. They were skilled warriors on horseback. The height of their power was in the 1200s and 1300s (although they still ruled Russia into the 1400s).
It is to frighten the enemy. It is to encourage surrender without fighting. The Mongols relied on it. They exaggerated the number of killed they killed in battle. If a village resisted, everyone in the village was killed. But if a village surrendered, the people would be spared. They would sometimes boil chiefs alive to encourage others to surrender.
Battle of Tours
It was a battle between the Franks and the Muslims over present-day France in 732 C.E. It halted Muslim advances into Western Europe. The Muslims had already conquered Spain (the Iberian Peninsula - Portugal too) and crossed the Pyrenees into France. But at this battle, Charles Martel, the Frankish leader, stopped the Muslims from conquering France.
In 800 C.E., he was crowned by the Pope.
He had built a medieval empire that included parts of France, Germany, and Italy. His descendants would call it the "Holy Roman Empire." He encouraged education although religious and was a descendant of Charles Martel. Yes, he was a king of the Franks.
Status of Women in China - Classical and Post-Classical Eras
They had low status due to patriarchy and Confucian ideas that strengthened patriarchy. They were viewed as servants to men and inferior. They obeyed their fathers as children, their husbands as wives and their eldest sons as widows. They were never independent.
Hindu Caste System
It is a fixed class system. A person is born into his class and cannot change his position throughout his lifetime. It lacks social mobility. Only death can liberate a person from it.
Compare - Hindu Caste System and Confucian Ideas about Social Status
One lacks social mobility. A person can simply not change his position in this lifetime. In the other, a man can change his class but only if he is an educated man who can pass the examination for government service. In this other society, there is limited social mobility. Through education, a man can become a scholar-gentry but it was difficult for a poor man to have the money necessary for private tutoring to ensure that he could pass the examination.
This Italian explorer and traveler of the Silk Roads (1254-1324) travelled to China and worked in the court of Khubilai (Kublai) Khan. When he finally returned to his Italian city-state, he was imprisoned during one of the city-states many wars. In prison, he shared his travel stories with his cellmate and a book was written about his time in China. This book revealed how advanced China was and made Europeans interested in the outside world. This book was a favorite book of Christopher Columbus.
This great Muslim traveler (1304-1369) from Morocco was the most widely traveled individual of his time. He traveled 75,000 miles in Dar al-Islam (the abode of Islam). He wrote a detailed account of travels. He traveled to Mecca, West Africa and even China. His writings give a glimpse into the world of that time period.
It means income. Governments typically get their income from taxation.
Mandate of Heaven
It was the Chinese belief established during the Zhou Dynasty that the gods picked the emperor to rule but the gods could remove this right to rule. An emperor who ruled in a corrupt or poor manner lost this right to rule and could be overthrown. Thus, this concept justified or allowed for rebellion. Indeed as a result of dynasties losing this right, dynasties were sometimes overthrown and new dynasties founded - thereby leading to the dynastic cycle or a dynasty rising, ruling, falling and a new dynasty established.
It is a ranking system or a hierarchy. In Medieval Europe, kings, lords, knights and serfs were various class or ranks in society. The caste system is a system of ranking too.
It is the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in present-day Iraq. It is the location of the world's first civilization. Sumerian civilization developed here in 3500 B.C.E. The rivers flooded unpredictably and violently leading many to conclude that the gods were angry. The epic of Gilgamesh was also written in this civilization and on this land.
City-State of Ur
It was one of the largest city-states in ancient Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia, on the Euphrates River.
Indian Ocean Trade
It connected trade between East Africa (gold, ivory and slaves), Arabia (horses), India (pepper and textiles), and Southeast Asia (cinnamon, cardamon, and ginger). The monsoons or seasonal winds facilitated it. It led to a diaspora of merchants, diffusion and syncretism too. It also led to Swahili culture which was Bantu and Arabic in influences.
The largest overland trade route connecting China to the coast of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. It was a luxury trade route. It was also a relay trade as goods were passed from one merchant to the next thereby leading to high prices. It allowed for diffusion to occur. Buddhism spread on the Silk Roads.
Khan is a title for sovereign or ruler. A great one would a ruler of other rulers. When the great one died, others of the group had to return to the funeral thereby sparing Eastern Europe from Mongol invasion. Oh, it is a title used by the Mongols for their tribal chieftains, sovereigns or kings.
It was established by the Han Dynasty and used by other dynasties (except the Mongol Dynasty in China - the Yuan Dynasty - did not use it). It was essentially a test for government service. If a man (any man could take the test whether rich or poor) passed the test, he became a scholar gentry and was rewarded with a government post and land. It ensured that government officials were selected based on ability. It established a meritocracy in China.
It is a system in which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the mother's line. Most cultures are patrilineal because of patriarchy but some cultures are based on kinship through the mother or female line.
It is something of value that is given to a more powerful kingdom in order to ensure that your kingdom is not harmed. When the Mongols came to town, they were most interested in the collection of it. The Aztecs too wanted it. Less powerful kingdoms gave things of value like gold or cotton or spices to more powerful kingdoms to ensure that they were protected and safe.
They are markets selling lots of diverse products. Typically, the term is used in reference to the Middle East but wherever there is market with many goods, it can be called this.
Grid for City-Planning
It is placing streets in an organized fashion where it is easy for people to navigate the city's streets. It is evidence of urban planning or carefully planned cities. It existed in many cities. Even Manhattan like Harappa back in the day had its streets in this way.
It was a large city in the central Mexico. It had evidence of city planning and unprecedented size for its time. Reached its peak around the year 450 C.E. and was a trading center in the region. It had a "Street of the Dead" with many pyramids but a massive pyramid to the sun and a massive pyramid to the moon at both ends.
It was largest city of the Indus Valley civilization. It was centrally located in the extensive floodplain of the Indus River. Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley communities, but the large-scale implies central planning. Its city was laid out in a grid pattern and it had a complex irrigation and sewage system.
It means the "enlightened one." 2,500 years ago in the Indian subcontinent, a prince lived. His name was Siddhartha Gautama and he came to understand of the existence of suffering. He then dedicated himself to understanding the causation and cessation of suffering. When he discovered the cause and way to end suffering, he became the "enlightened one." He formulated the Four Noble Truths and provided his followers with a path to the end of suffering.
It was the earliest Russian state and it emerged around the city of Kiev in the ninth century C.E. It was a culturally diverse region that included Vikings as well as Finnic and Baltic peoples. The conversion of Vladimir, the grand prince of Kiev, to Orthodox Christianity in 988 had long-term implications for Russia. This city was destroyed by the Mongols when the princes of this city refused to pay the tribute leading thereby to the elevation of Moscow. The princes of Moscow became the tribute collectors for the Mongols. But until the Mongol conquest, this was the center of the Russian state.
Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
These Greek philosophers encouraged deep thinking. One said that people had to know themselves and asked questions to help people come to really understand what was truth and what was beauty. One believe in philosopher-kings or having wise men rule. And one studied just about everything and was a tutor of Alexander the Great.
They are new methods, ideas, or products. They propel societies to do things better or think more clearly. They are the engines upon which change occurs.
The Mongols in China
They established the Yuan Dynasty. They did not use the examination system and instead relied on Mongols and foreigners in government. They moved the capital to Beijing. Although they ruled China from within China, they still wanted to be closer to their beloved homeland on the steppes. They prevented their herds from grazing on Chinese farmlands.
The Mongols in Persia
They were very harsh and collected taxes twenty to thirty times a year. If a man failed to pay his taxes, he was whipped. Alcohol and silk production flourished under their rule. But they themselves were most transformed in this land. They converted to Islam in this land.
The Mongols in Russia
They had the greatest impact here. They destroyed the city of Kiev for failing to pay the tribute and elevated the city of Moscow as tribute collectors. They thought it had nothing of value and ruled it from the steppes but they were religiously tolerant and allowed conquered peoples to practice their religions.
God, Glory and Gold
These were the primary motives of exploration and conquest of the Americas. The Americas actually had little gold but it had lots of silver and these silver deposits fueled the global silver trade.
It is an economic policy that was once popular in Western Europe, especially during the Age of European Exploration. It is the belief that bullion or gold and silver make a nation rich. Thus, a nation must acquire as much gold and silver as possible. It is also the belief that colonies benefit the mother country. Colonies can only trade with the mother country and colonies can only export raw materials. Colonies import finished goods from mother countries.
It is the growth of cities or movement to cities. It occurs with food surplus. It also occurs when trade increase. When trade increases, this increases. Thus, in the Middle Ages, this decreased but in the Industrial Revolution, this increased.
This HIndu and Buddhist belief is the belief that the soul is reborn. The person is born, lives, and dies but then is born again. In Hinduism, this wheel of life ends with Moksha or union with Brahman. In Buddhism, nirvana is the end of this cycle.
The Abrahamic Religions
These are the monotheistic and ethical religions influenced by Abraham. Judaism, Christianity and Islam are these religions.
Trade and Diffusion
When people exchange goods, they inevitably exchange ideas. People are not just business oriented. They are also social creatures. After business, they will chat and learn from one another. Islam spread in West Africa through this activity. It was not forced. It was not preached. It was just learned through sharing.
It is that part of Africa that is below the Sahara desert. Most of Africa is this. The Sahara was an obstacle, not impenetrable but difficult to cross. Of course, nomads from North Africa could cross it and thus, ideas spread from North Africa to the rest of Africa.
She was a major female Confucian author of Han China (45-116 C.E.) whose works give insight into the Confucian views on women. Even though she was a woman, she accepted and advocated Confucianism and thus believed that women should have very low status and serve men.
It is a language, a culture and even a civilization. It is located in East Africa and is a combination of Bantu and Arabic influences. It developed due to trade on the Indian Ocean where East Africans and Arabs exchanged goods and ideas.
Supply and Demand
In Economics, the amount of a good and the desire to purchase that good determine price. If many people want a good that is in low supply, the price will be high. If there is a lot of a good, the price will drop. Prices is all about this.
The Atlantic Slave Trade
To replace a dying Native American Indian population, African slaves were brought to the Americas. Many Native American Indians had died from smallpox disease due to a lack of immunities from a lack of domesticated animals. With a labor shortage in the Americas, Europeans turned to African slave labor. The majority of African slaves were brought to labor on sugar plantations in the Americas. These plantations were located in the Caribbean islands and Brazil. Slaves were treated cruelly and were exploited.
This great Chinese traveler for the Ming Dynasty made seven voyages in the Indian Ocean from 1405 to 1433. He traveled all the way to East Africa and even brought a giraffe back to the Beijing zoo to his sponsor, Emperor Yongle. His ability to make these voyages on his massive treasure ship and with his large fleet is evidence of Chinese navigational superiority in this time period.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Africa: Great Kingdoms and History
WHAP UNIT 2
Period 4 - WHAP
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
AP world post classical period Smith
Periods 1 and 2
WHAP Period I & II Cram Packet Quiz (4/22-4/23) St…
World History: Patterns of Interaction (Chapter 15)
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Review: Ottoman and Ming Examination
Byzantine, Mongol, Abbasid, Tang and Song Review
First Unit Global History and Geography I
Reflection - Global I