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79 terms

ch.11-12 test

STUDY
PLAY
Renaissance
"rebirth"
Develop well-rounded individuals
goal of renaissance
Patrons
commissioned artists with their wealth
Medici family
gained politiccal control of Florence
Baldassare Castiglione
wrote "the Courtier"-standard for courtly behavior
Francesco Petrarch
father of Humanism; revived interest in the study of classical literature
Niccolo Machiavelli
Wrote "the Prince" quoted "it is much safer to be feared than loved" disturbed by unrest in Italy
Erasmus
wrote Greek New Testament and "Praise of Folly." leading advocate of church reform
Johannes Gutenburg
moveable-type printing
Sir Thomas More
english humanist; wrote Utopia
Utopia
Sir thomas more's views of the ideal government
Miguel de Cervantes
spanish humanist; wrote Don Quixote
Don Quixote
Miguel de Cervante's satire on chivalry
William Shakespeare
greatest playwright of all time
Renaissance art
1. emphasized the present physical world
2. secular patrons supported artists
3. wanted to be praised because of their work
4. gave realistic 3-D aspect to their works
5. painted kings, merchants, other secular officials
6. painting and sculpture were most popular media
Giotto di Bondone
father of Renaissance painting
leonardo da vinci
best example of Renaissance man; sculptor,architect,painter,musician,poet
Raphael
painted School of Athens; portraits of motherhood; father was painter
Michelangelo
painted Sistine Chapel; apprenticed to florentine artist. considered himself as a sculptor rather than a painter
Donatello
master of the freestanding statue; made statue of David
Plainsong
gregorian chant;music of catholic church;mystical and spiritual in nature
Palestrina
best known composer of church music during Renaissance; composed more than 900 musical pieces. hailed as prince of music in his day
Polyphonic
consisting of many melodies
Positive consequences of renaissance
1.provoked a spirit of inquiry
2.revived interest in literature and languages of antiquity (ages of classical Greek)
3.developed moveabletype printing
4. made education more available to commoners
5.stressed importance of the individual
Negative consequences
1.secular emphasis weakened moral restraints
2.led to the worship of the classical ideas instead of the true God
Masaccio
florentine artist added new techniques of painting, shading. portraid human figures with realism
Sandro Botticelli
added movement to renaissance art
girolamo savonarola
wanted to bring moral reform to florence and roman church. excommunicated by pope alexander VI
titian
ranks with michelangelo as one of the best painters of renaissance; wealthy from painting for kings and emperors
tintoretto
Italian for "little dyer."
last of great venetian painters
albrecht durer
"leonardo of north" first northern artist to travel to italy to study art. first to sign own drawings
hans holbein
considered finest portrait painter of the northern renaissance. became official court painter of henry VIII.
Jan van eyck
first to use oils in paintings. one of the founders and representatives of the flemish school of painters
Pieter brueghel
best known for his genre paintings. helped perfect style of art known for its realism, landscapes, and scenes of life
lorenzo ghiberti
won a competition against breunelleschi to design a set of doors to the entrance to the baptisery of florence
filippo Brunelleschi
lost to ghiberti in the competition. turned from doing sculpture to architecture
josquin depres
martin luther said of him,"he is master of notes." his life and music mark transition between medieval and modern times
Germany
country where Reformation began
Frescoes
paintings done on wet plaster
Lute
most popular instrument of the Renaissance
Florence
city that was birthplace of the Renaissance
John Wycliffe
"Morning star of Reformation"
Wycliffe Bible
first complete English translation
John Huss
Bohemian reformer; condemned to die at the stake by the Council of Constance because of his beliefs
Martin Luther
wrote 95 theses; entered monastery
"Justification by faith alone"
Romans 1:17 (sola fide)
Indulgences
Leo X granted pardon from punishment of sin; treasury of saints
Johann Tetzel
sent out to sell indulgences
95 Theses
October 31, 1517; day before All saints day. became symbol of defiance against corruption of Rome
Johannes Eck
debated against Martin Luther in Leipzig debate
Diet of Worms
Luther was condemned as an outlaw; lived for 25 years dedicated to writing (p.284)
Ulrich Zwingli
wrote 67 Conclusions; disagreed with Luther on Lord's Supper; from Switzerland
Anabaptists
swiss brethren; opposed infant baptism; separation of church and state; believed in pacifism
John Calvin
converted around 1533; wrote "Institutes of Christian Religion"
Soverienty of God
major emphasis of Calvinsim
The Institutes of the Christian Religion
Christian doctrine in systematic outline
Geneva
became pastor; became leading center of Reformation
English Reformation
influenced by 2 factors: translations of the Bible, and English rulers
Henry VIII
broke with Rome over the issue of divorce; Thomas Cranmer
Edward VI
9 years old; 42 articles; "Book of Common Prayer"
Mary I
Catholic queen; tried to eliminate protetantismin England; Latimer,Ridley, Cranmer; AKA bloody mary
Elizabeth I
"Good Queen Bess" did not marry anyone
Elizabethan Settlement
laid foundation for Anglican church
Spanish Armada
1588; philip II vs. ELizabeth ; english victory preserved england; established england as #1 seapower
Sir Francis Drake
helped Elizabeth defeat spanish armada
Puritans
wanted to purify church of England
Separatists
saw no way to purify church of England; separated themselves from church
John Knox
leader of Reformation in Scotland; founded Presbyterian church
Huguenots
french protestants
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Catherine de Medici; 20,000 Huguenots murdered
Henry of Navarre
Bourbon vs. Guise; Henry IV; becomes catholic
Edict of Nantes
1598; granted Huguenots certain religious freedoms
Jesuits
supress heresy and promote catholic education
Ignatious Loyola
founded Jesuits (society of Jesus); former spanish soldier
Inquisition
pope Paul III; "guilty until proven innocent"
Index of Prohibited Books
1559; regulated what church members could read
Council of Trent
sealed the break between catholicism and protestantism
Slavonrola
what dominica friar tried to bring reform to the church in Florence?
Creation, man's fall, redemptionof man
what is the subject matter of the frescoe painting?