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Develop well-rounded individuals

goal of renaissance


commissioned artists with their wealth

Medici family

gained politiccal control of Florence

Baldassare Castiglione

wrote "the Courtier"-standard for courtly behavior

Francesco Petrarch

father of Humanism; revived interest in the study of classical literature

Niccolo Machiavelli

Wrote "the Prince" quoted "it is much safer to be feared than loved" disturbed by unrest in Italy


wrote Greek New Testament and "Praise of Folly." leading advocate of church reform

Johannes Gutenburg

moveable-type printing

Sir Thomas More

english humanist; wrote Utopia


Sir thomas more's views of the ideal government

Miguel de Cervantes

spanish humanist; wrote Don Quixote

Don Quixote

Miguel de Cervante's satire on chivalry

William Shakespeare

greatest playwright of all time

Renaissance art

1. emphasized the present physical world
2. secular patrons supported artists
3. wanted to be praised because of their work
4. gave realistic 3-D aspect to their works
5. painted kings, merchants, other secular officials
6. painting and sculpture were most popular media

Giotto di Bondone

father of Renaissance painting

leonardo da vinci

best example of Renaissance man; sculptor,architect,painter,musician,poet


painted School of Athens; portraits of motherhood; father was painter


painted Sistine Chapel; apprenticed to florentine artist. considered himself as a sculptor rather than a painter


master of the freestanding statue; made statue of David


gregorian chant;music of catholic church;mystical and spiritual in nature


best known composer of church music during Renaissance; composed more than 900 musical pieces. hailed as prince of music in his day


consisting of many melodies

Positive consequences of renaissance

1.provoked a spirit of inquiry
2.revived interest in literature and languages of antiquity (ages of classical Greek)
3.developed moveabletype printing
4. made education more available to commoners
5.stressed importance of the individual

Negative consequences

1.secular emphasis weakened moral restraints
2.led to the worship of the classical ideas instead of the true God


florentine artist added new techniques of painting, shading. portraid human figures with realism

Sandro Botticelli

added movement to renaissance art

girolamo savonarola

wanted to bring moral reform to florence and roman church. excommunicated by pope alexander VI


ranks with michelangelo as one of the best painters of renaissance; wealthy from painting for kings and emperors


Italian for "little dyer."
last of great venetian painters

albrecht durer

"leonardo of north" first northern artist to travel to italy to study art. first to sign own drawings

hans holbein

considered finest portrait painter of the northern renaissance. became official court painter of henry VIII.

Jan van eyck

first to use oils in paintings. one of the founders and representatives of the flemish school of painters

Pieter brueghel

best known for his genre paintings. helped perfect style of art known for its realism, landscapes, and scenes of life

lorenzo ghiberti

won a competition against breunelleschi to design a set of doors to the entrance to the baptisery of florence

filippo Brunelleschi

lost to ghiberti in the competition. turned from doing sculpture to architecture

josquin depres

martin luther said of him,"he is master of notes." his life and music mark transition between medieval and modern times


country where Reformation began


paintings done on wet plaster


most popular instrument of the Renaissance


city that was birthplace of the Renaissance

John Wycliffe

"Morning star of Reformation"

Wycliffe Bible

first complete English translation

John Huss

Bohemian reformer; condemned to die at the stake by the Council of Constance because of his beliefs

Martin Luther

wrote 95 theses; entered monastery

"Justification by faith alone"

Romans 1:17 (sola fide)


Leo X granted pardon from punishment of sin; treasury of saints

Johann Tetzel

sent out to sell indulgences

95 Theses

October 31, 1517; day before All saints day. became symbol of defiance against corruption of Rome

Johannes Eck

debated against Martin Luther in Leipzig debate

Diet of Worms

Luther was condemned as an outlaw; lived for 25 years dedicated to writing (p.284)

Ulrich Zwingli

wrote 67 Conclusions; disagreed with Luther on Lord's Supper; from Switzerland


swiss brethren; opposed infant baptism; separation of church and state; believed in pacifism

John Calvin

converted around 1533; wrote "Institutes of Christian Religion"

Soverienty of God

major emphasis of Calvinsim

The Institutes of the Christian Religion

Christian doctrine in systematic outline


became pastor; became leading center of Reformation

English Reformation

influenced by 2 factors: translations of the Bible, and English rulers

Henry VIII

broke with Rome over the issue of divorce; Thomas Cranmer

Edward VI

9 years old; 42 articles; "Book of Common Prayer"

Mary I

Catholic queen; tried to eliminate protetantismin England; Latimer,Ridley, Cranmer; AKA bloody mary

Elizabeth I

"Good Queen Bess" did not marry anyone

Elizabethan Settlement

laid foundation for Anglican church

Spanish Armada

1588; philip II vs. ELizabeth ; english victory preserved england; established england as #1 seapower

Sir Francis Drake

helped Elizabeth defeat spanish armada


wanted to purify church of England


saw no way to purify church of England; separated themselves from church

John Knox

leader of Reformation in Scotland; founded Presbyterian church


french protestants

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

Catherine de Medici; 20,000 Huguenots murdered

Henry of Navarre

Bourbon vs. Guise; Henry IV; becomes catholic

Edict of Nantes

1598; granted Huguenots certain religious freedoms


supress heresy and promote catholic education

Ignatious Loyola

founded Jesuits (society of Jesus); former spanish soldier


pope Paul III; "guilty until proven innocent"

Index of Prohibited Books

1559; regulated what church members could read

Council of Trent

sealed the break between catholicism and protestantism


what dominica friar tried to bring reform to the church in Florence?

Creation, man's fall, redemptionof man

what is the subject matter of the frescoe painting?

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