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Ch 7 Review
Terms in this set (53)
invented the steam engine.
improved the steam engine to the point that it became a vital part of the Industrial Revolution.
Began using coal to smelt iron and developed a process to remove the impurities from iron that the coal created.
Created the first steam boat.
Places that brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods.
Privately built roads where travelers had to pay a fee to use them.
The process of taking over and fencing off land formerly shared by peasant farmers.
Explain what life was like for the majority of people in Europe in the early 1700s?
Worked on farms and lived in single family homes.
About when did the "second" agricultural revolution take place?
Describe five new farming methods that took place in the Agricultural Revolution?
Fertilizer (manure), Crop Rotation, Enclosure, Turnips, Iron Tools
What was the enclosure movement? Why did landowners begin enclosing their land?
A movement where landowners began to consolidate all of their lands into one big farm. They did this because they found that it would increase the productivity and efficiency of the farm.
Name a positive effect of the enclosure movement? A negative effect?
Increased productivity and efficiency of the farm led to larger yields of crops which increased the food supply, but it also pushed traditional peasant laborers off the land and into the cities.
What happened to the population of Europe between 1700-1800? Why?
There was a population boom due more food and better nutrition.
What new invention was developed that would power the Industrial Revolution?
The steam engine.
List five conditions in Britain that allowed them to have an industrial revolution?
Natural resources such as coal, a large number of workers, new technology that came out of the Scientific Revolution, capitol to invest in new enterprises, demand for goods from a large population, stable government that supported economic growth, Protestant work ethic.
What natural resources did Britain have an abundance of?
Coal and iron ore.
Why did Britain have an abundance of labor?
A population boom and the enclosure movement created a large workforce.
Why did Britain have more technology than most other countries?
It had been the center of the Scientific Revolution.
Why did Britain have a great deal of capitol to fund growing industries?
Oversees trade and nobles took part in investing their wealthy in industry.
Why did Britain have such a high demand for goods?
The population boom created a large number of people who wanted goods. General economic prosperity meant that more people had money to spend.
Why was Britain's political situation more conducive to business than other countries?
Stable government and fewer restrictions on trade. Their parliamentary gov was influenced by business leaders.
Name two social conditions in Britain that led to early success in industrialization?
Protestant work ethic and nobles who were engaged in investing their capitol in industry.
Explain how the Agricultural Revolution led to the Industrial Revolution?
Increase in farm output led to general economic prosperity (demand) which led to a population boom which led to more workers to power industry. The enclosure movement also increased the supply of labor.
Why were iron and coal so important to the Industrial Revolution?
Iron was used to build machines and new products and coal was the fuel for smelting iron and powering steam engines.
Who improved the early iron industry to make iron more usable?
Describe the progression of the textile industry from the guild system to the factory system?
Guild system, putting out system, new inventions that had to be housed in factories, to factories.
List five changes that took place in transportation in the 1700s.
Steam locomotive, turnpikes, canals, stronger bridges, steam boat.
How did these changes help fuel the Industrial Revolution?
Led to bigger markets to sell goods. Increased profits that were reinvested. Required more people to work which created a greater demand for more products.
How did the IR change demographics in Great Britain?
People moved to cities (Urbanization)
What problems did urbanization bring to the cities? Why did this happen?
Overcrowding, unsafe living conditions, No sewage or garbage pick-up systems, & disease.
Cities grew too quickly to plan or to require codes, etc.
Describe living conditions for the working class?
Short life expectancy, dirty, unsanitary, overcrowded
Describe working conditions for the working class?
Polluted, dangerous machines, long hours, low pay, Threat of being fired if sick or hurt, no breaks, child labor.
Why were employers able to treat their workers like this?
There was a large supply of willing workers to take their place
Who benefited from the IR?
Immediately- factory owners and middle class professionals made profits.
Long term- everyone
What were some positive effects of the IR?
Wealth of the nation increases
Goods are mass produced and become cheaper so standard of living increases
New technology that everyone will eventually enjoy
How or why did conditions get better for the working class?
Over time, expansion of the factories created more jobs. As the number of jobs began to = the # of available workers, wages go up and workers can demand safer conditions
Workers gain right to vote and right to unions
What city was the center of Britain's cotton industry?
How did workers try to change their situation? Results?
These are illegal at first. Some workers rioted (Luddites). Results were not good at first.
What new denomination started? Significance?
Started Sunday schools. Educated the workers so that they could work for reforms peacefully rather than start a revolution.
Describe the laissez faire philosophy of economics?
It is the idea that the government should not try to regulate a free market economy in any way. Natural laws would make sure that eventually, everyone would get what they needed at a fair price.
What natural laws did Adam Smith say would run the economy?
Laws of self- interest, competition, supply and demand.
Describe what capitalism is and explain why it was essential to the IR?
It is an economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned. Investors invest money in business in order to make a profit.
Factories would never been built if investors did not have chance to make a profit.
How did capitalist explain that life would get better for the lower classes?
Out of self interest, owners would re-invest their profits and create more factories. This would in turn create jobs. As more competition for jobs is created, wages would go up and benefits increase. At the same time, as more goods were produced, the price of both basic necessities and luxury would go down and most people could afford them.
What did reformers want the government to do?
Take an active role in making life better for working class.
The idea that governments should create laws that created the greatest good for the greatest # of people.
How did socialism want to answer the problems of society?
The public (or government) would own the means of production and direct the economy to benefit all members of society.
How did Marx describe history? What did he predict would happen in the future?
A struggle b/w have and have- nots.
The proletariat would revolt across the world and overthrow the factory owners. They would then control the means of production and run it in a socialist manner.
What is pure communism? Has it ever happened?
A state in which the people collectively run the economy, so there is no need for government. Everyone is equal.
It has never happened.
Why do capitalists say socialism and communism never work? Why do socialists and communists say capitalism will never work?
Capitalists say that if you guarantee people jobs, they will lose their motivation to work.
Socialists and communists say that owners will always be striving to keep worker in their place in order to increase their profits.
What was the purpose of labor unions?
To collectively bargain for workers with similar jobs so that they could gain better wages and better conditions.
How did governments treat labor unions at first?
They outlawed them because the government was controlled by business owners.
What political reform had to be made for unions to be allowed and conditions get better for workers?
All men received the right to vote.
What other reforms took place in Europe/ the US in the mid to late 1800's?
Education- public schools began.
Women's rights movement began, did not achieve voting rights until 1919
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