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Psychology: Development: Exam 1 Flashcards
Terms in this set (199)
Systematic changes and continuities in the individual that occur between
conception and death.
The growth of the body and its organs, the functioning of the physiological
systems, and physical signs of aging.
Changes in continuities in perception, learning, language, memory, problem
solving, and other mental processes.
Changes in personal and interpersonal aspects of development. (motives,
emotions, personality traits, interpersonal skills, relationships, and roles played
in the family and larger society)
This is a method that suggests that we make gains, then these gains stabilize,
then as we get older these abilities deteriorate. Examples include physical,
cognitive, and emotional development. We gain, stabilize, and lose some
variables, but do not go through this process for others.
SOME THINGS FIT THIS MODEL AND SOME THINGS DONT
The physical changes that occur from conception to maturity.
The deterioration of organisms that leads to inevitable death.
Conception to birth.
The first 2 years of life.
2-5 years old.
6-10 years old-or the beginning of puberty.
Approximately 10-18 years old. The beginning of puberty until relative
18 to 25 years old. Transitional period between adolescence and adulthood.
Age grade/age stratum
Socially defined age group. Ex: in the classroom you are defined as a
freshman, sophomore, junior, senior.
Rites of passage
A ritual that makes a person's transition from childhood to adulthood. Ex:
Circumcision-sometimes culturally sometimes it is something that is done at
birth or not based on religion.
Society's way of telling people how to act their age. This changes.
Race and ethnicity
A person's classification or affiliations with a group based on common heritage
Socioeconomic status (SES)
Standing in society based on occupational prestige, education, and income. In
lower SES puts you into adulthood early. Based on your SES it can influence your
life span development in terms of classifying someone as an adult.
Today: 2-10 years old.
Before the 17th century children didn't have the same things. They were almost
thought of as adults. Made to work, dressed as adults. They didn't go to school
or have organized play. Expected to contribute to family survival ASAP.
In the late 1800s adolescence was recognized. Child industrialization labor laws
helped adolescence become its own distinct stage. Redefined childhood.
Historical Changes-Emerging adulthood
In 1990 is when it was recognized.
Historical Changes-Middle age
Now a days-it is when the kids move out of the house and you are an empty
nester. In the olden days this didn't happen. Newer-not until the 20th century1930s,1940s.
Historical Changes-Old age
In the olden days they didn't live very long so it is a newer life span stage. 20th
century. Period of retirement. Life expectancy is older.
78 years old. In 1900 the life expectancy was 47 years old.
FRAMING THE NATURE-NURTURE ISSUE
How biological and environmental forces act and interact to make us what we
Influences of heredity universal maturation processes guided by genes, and
biological influences such as hormones and neurotransmitters.
What you are born with. -genetics, neurotransmitters.
The biological unfolding of the individual according to what is inherited.
Ex: her daughter was little when she was young but grew to what she was
biologically supposed to be. (same build as her mom)
Starting puberty-heredity-for females-starting period at same time in the same
Heredity material passed from parents to child at conception.
Influences change in response to the environment.
Environmental influences that impact us.
All external physical and social conditions. Stimulus and events that can effect
us- ex. socioeconomic factors, polluted air, social interactions with family and
Experiences that bring about relatively permanent change in behavior.
The Interplay of Nature and Nurture
Some components are more nature and some are more nurture. It's a
combination of both.
Intelligence is a lot about what you inherited.
Most psychologists today recognize that it is a combination of nature vs.
nurture. Interplay of both. Psychologists don't really try to figure out anymore
which one has more importance.
GOALS AND USES OF STUDYING DEVELOPMENT
Characterize the functioning of humans at different ages and trace how it
changes with age. This describes both normal and individual differences in
Explain the development processes -tentative explanation of why behaviors or
why development is occurring. Ex: rooting and sucking reflexes are survival
Identify factors that help us predict development. Make a prediction based on
what normal development is. Make predictions based on things like reflexes
and language development milestones.
Based on what we know about human development and the issues that could
happen this is how we help development progress. We can offer support.
Research and treatments that have been provided have been demonstrated to
Baby biographies (Darwin)
Scholars began to observe and record their own children's growth and
development. One of the first psychologists to do this was Darwin. The baby
biographies were very biased. Not scientific.
G. Stanley Hall
The first person to put a more scientific spin on the baby biographies. He was
more objective with getting data. He studied other kids, not his own.
Adolescence = storm and stress
G. Stanley Hall was the first one to acknowledge adolescence. He called it a time
of storm and stress. Many psychologists took his word for it because he was so
THE MODERN LIFE-SPAN PERSPECTIVE
Most developmental psychologists study a certain age frame.
The study of aging and old age.
Life-span perspective (Paul Baltes) 7 assumptions
1. Development is a lifelong process-we change and develop
through our lives.
2. Development is multidirectional-different capacities show
different patterns of change over time.
3. Development involves both gains and losses
4. Development is characterized by lifelong plasticityPlasticity
The capacity to change in response to experience-both
positive and negative.
Brain's ability to change or heal.
5. Development is shaped by its historical-cultural context-The great
depression. People during this time valued their resources.
6. Development is multiply influenced-nature vs. nurture. The
Cohort effect. The generation that you are (baby boomer) (gen X) (gen Z).
7. Development must by studied by multiple disciplines-We have to
look at history, biology, in terms of education.
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
a belief that researchers should allow systematic
observations or data to determine if their observations or theories are correct.
A set of concepts and propositions intended to describe and explain certain
A good theory:
1. Internally consistent-doesn't generate contradictive hypotheses.
2. Falsifiable-it can be proven wrong.
3. Supported by data
a group of individuals that are studied.
a well-defined group, but it is too large so we just take a
sample of it to study.
any member of the designated population has an equal
chance of being selected to participate in a study.
interviews, questionnaires or surveys, abilities and
achievement tests, and personality scales. These can be self-report or you can
interview people about other people.
observing people's behavior.
-observing people in their everyday
create special stimuli or task
design to elicit behavior of interest.
taking a FMRI-taking blood and hormone
levels, EEGs, cat scans. ~not that important~
An in depth examination of an individual or a small number of individuals.
Typically it is carried out by gathering information from a number of sources.
-A researcher manipulates some aspect of the environment to see
how this effects behavior. The goal is to have the independent variable cause a
change in the dependent variable.
-a variable that is introduced that we manipulate.
each participant has an equal chance of being placed into
one of the experimental or control conditions.
Manipulation of the independent variable
-there should be more than one
-try to hold constant all other factors in addition to
controlling the independent variables.
determining if two or more variables are related in a systematic way.
Correlational coefficient-the number that shows that there is a
relationship between two variables. (-1.0-1.0)- The closer it is to 1 or -1 shows
the stronger the relationship. The closer it is to 0 it is not a strong relationship.
Positive-the higher value in one variable is associated with
higher values in the other variable.
Negative-the higher value in one variable is associated with a
lower value in the other variable.
Zero-no relationship between two variables.
the direction of the cause and effect relationship could be
reverse of what the researcher thinks it is.
Third variable problem
-the association between two variables-maybe caused by
a 3rd variable.
the results of multiple studies addressing the same question can
be integrated together to give us overall conclusions.
the performance of people of different age groups or
cohorts are compared at one time.
a group of individuals born at around the same time. Either the
same year or the same time span
the relationship between the age and the particular
aspect of development.
being born as a member of a particular generation
may effect results.
one cohort or group of individuals is assessed repeatedly
Time of measurement effects-
-improvements from one time of
measurement to the next time might be the cause for observed change.
Combines cross-sectional and longitudinal designs.
the belief that one's own group and its culture is superior.
(western, educated, industrialized, rich, democratic)
the standards of conduct that investigators are ethically
bound to honor to protect their research participants from physical or
you must inform potential participants of research that you
plan to do.
tell participants about the purpose of the research before and after.
Protection from Harm
-psychologically, emotionally, and physically.
keep identifying information about subjects confidential.
-Reluctance or refusal to go to school. (School phobia)
Nature v Nurture
-Nature: heredity, genetics, innate or Nurture: is it environmental or learned. Some perspectives are more nature oriented, some are more nurture oriented.
Activity v Passivity
-Does the theory stress that humans are active in shaping their environment or does the theory view humans as having the world shape them.
Continuity v Discontinuity
-Do humans develop or change gradually or abruptly.
Universality: the extent to which develop changes are common to all humans.
Context Specificity: development is different across cultures and individuals.
-The first theory that was proposed by Freud. Development: Freud's emphasis was on personality development. We are driven by motives and emotional conflicts of which we are largely unaware and they are shaped by early experiences.
Biological urges that must be satisfied. Inborn biological forces that motivate behavior.
We are not aware that these instincts drive us. Our motivation is unconscious
Psychic wild child. Impulsive, irrational, selfish part of us. Tries to seek immediate gratification. We are born with it. Devil on your shoulder.
The rational side of humans that tries to find a realistic way of having our instincts met. It begins to develop in infancy. Between 1-2 years old. It takes the form of cognitive processes (perception, learning, and problem solving).
Internalized moral standards. This develops between the ages of 3 and 6 years old.
Psychic energy of the sex instinct. The focus of the libido changes as we age
Harsh parenting or neglect can result in fixation (rested development)
Oral: birth-1 year
Focused on mouth or eating. Orally fixated if something happens during that stage.
Anal: 1-3 years. Anal retentive v anal expulsive.
Toilet training creates conflicts between biological urges and societies demands. If you get fixated Freud would say that you are anal retentive-OCD. Or you can be a complete slob and be anal expulsive.
Phallic: 3-6: genitals
resolution is identifying with the same sex parent; not wanting the opposite sex parent.
Children develop an incestuous desire for the opposite sex parent.
Where the boy loves his mother, fears his father will be jealous, and castrates him.
Where the girl desires her father or has penis envy.
Latent: 6-12 years old
The libido is quite. The psychic time out. Focus is on school and play with the same sex friends.
Genital stage: 12 and older
Puberty reawakens the libido. There is no conflict because the goal of being with someone sexually is outside of the family. Freud says that if you can get to this stage then you are golden because you have grown out of the fixation stage.
Unconscious coping devices to help with psychic conflicts.
Removing unacceptable thoughts or traumatic memories from consciousness.
Retreating to an earlier, less traumatic stage of development. (needing to go home and be babied because you are going through a hard time)
ERIKSON'S PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY
We develop socially but it is based on the unconscious and early childhood experiences. They call Erikson a neofreudian.
~Erikson-psychoanalytic theory -More current day thinking
1.less emphasis on sexual urges.
2.less emphasis on the unconscious irrational Id. More emphasis on the irrational ego.
3.Erikson has a more positive view that people are active in their development-which means they are able to overcome trauma.
4.Erikson emphasized development after adolescence.
Trust vs. mistrust
1. (birth to one year) develop a sense of trust in the caregiver and the environment.
Parents are taking care of you. The parenting that goes on early in life influences the relationship with other people in your life in terms of trust.
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
(1-3 years toddler) assert their own will and do things for themselves or they will their abilities.
If parents do not over react-let their kids fall and get up on their own=Autonomy.
If parents "helicopter parent" and do not let their kids act on their own=shame.
Initiative vs. guilt
(3-6 preschool) learning to initiate actions and carry them out without impinging on the rights of others.
A parent who understands why their child's art is bad=initiative.
A parent who is overly critical=sense of guilt.
Industry vs. inferiority
(6-12 years...elementary school): mastering important social and academic skills and keep up with their peers or they will feel inferior.
Identity versus role confusion
(12-20...think of adolescence and emerging adulthood) social and vocational identities or they be confused.
You either develop identity or are confused.
Intimacy vs. isolation
(20-40 young adulthood) seek intimate relationships but may feel isolated.
The goal is to seek an intimate relationship. After you have a career and life figured out. If you can't find one during this time Erikson says you will have a hard time finding one later in life.
Generativity vs. stagnation
(40-65 middle adulthood) efforts directed at shaping the new generation or generations to come (help your children and grandchildren) vs. stagnation...self-absorption.
Generativity-shaping future generations.
Stagnation-cannot get out of themselves. Means of self-absorption.
integrity vs. Despair
(65 plus) integrity is accepting the good and bad of their lives as they look back over their lives...despair is living with regrets.
WATSON: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
-American psychologist. The first guy who coined the term behaviorism. Did an experiment with Little Albert. He wanted to see if he could condition an emotional response with the kid. Watson wanted to condition a fear of the rat. He paired a loud noise with the rat to scare Albert. Eventually, Albert was afraid of the rat.
-Human development and functioning should be based on observations of overt behavior rather than on speculations about unobservable cognitive and emotional processes.
-A simple form of learning in which a stimulus that initially had no effect on an individual comes to elicit a response through its association with a stimulus that already elicits the response.
SKINNER: OPERANT CONDITIONING
-Skinner was a student of Watson. Studied behaviors that we choose to do.
Operant conditioning: a learner's behavior becomes either more or less probable depending on the consequences it produces. A behavior that is reinforced will increase in likelihood. A behavior that is punished will decrease in likelihood.
Reinforcement: occurs when a consequence strengthens a response.
-Occurs when something pleasant or desirable has been added to the situation and the behavior is strengthened.
-Occurs when something unpleasant or undesirable is removed from the situation after the behavior occurs and the behavior is strengthened.
Ex: seatbelts. Annoying noise when you forget to put your seatbelt on. So to get rid of the annoying noise you put your seatbelt on.
Ex: taking medicine to get rid of something painful.
Punishment: decreases the likelihood of behavior.
-occurs when an unpleasant stimulus is a consequence of a behavior. In the future, the behavior will decrease.
-occurs when a desirable stimulus is removed following a behavior. In the future, the behavior will decrease.
-an alternative to punishment. Ignore their behavior completely. Trying to decrease behavior. It is not rewarding a behavior so the behavior disappears completely.
BANDURA: SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY/SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
-Bandura studied modeling. That we learn behaviors by observing other people. Bobo Doll Experiment. His theory was that we learn how to be aggressive and passive.
Social cognitive theory/social learning theory: humans are cognitive beings and thought processes play a critical role in learning in behavior and development.
-learning by observing the behavior of others.
-learning occurs but is not evident in behavior. Later on the learned behavior comes out, just not immediately.
-learned behavior by watching other people be rewarded or punished.
-belief that we can effectively produce a particular desired outcome. Our beliefs influence whether we can accomplish a goal.
-development occurs through continuous reciprocal interactions among the person. Behavior - Environment - Thoughts
-children actively construct their own understanding of the world based on their experiences. They use their current understanding of the world to help solve problems, but revise their understandings to make them fit reality.
Stages of Cognitive Development
Concrete operations stage
-school-age children become capable of performing simple concrete operations that allow them to mentally classify add and act these concrete operations in their head. They can solve real-world problems through trial and error but cannot solve hypothetical or abstract problems. The child is no longer egocentric. They can also do conservation skills.
Stages of Cognitive Development
(birth - 2 years)
-Where children deal with the world directly through their senses and actions or their motor skills. Starts with innate reflexes and the stage ends with symbolic thought. Reflexes: sucking, rooting. Through experiences reflexes disappear.
Stages of Cognitive Development
-Refers to a child being unable to perform basic logical operations (math). Children develop language and concepts.
Stages of Cognitive Development
Formal operations stage
-use abstract reasoning about hypothetical situations, think logically, use abstract analogies and do scientific thinking (coming up with hypotheses). Piaget argued that not everyone can do formal operations even as an adult.
-child sees the world from his point of view. Has a difficult time taking the viewpoint of others.
-if you change the shape or position of something, little guys can't recognize that it is the same amount.
-children at this age can't do conservation problems. They cannot recognize that certain properties of an object or substance do not change when its appearance is altered.
-Vygotsky disagreed with universal stages that Piaget argued.
-Vygotsky created sociocultural perspective.
-Cognitive development is shaped by the sociocultural context in which it occurs and it grows out of a child's interactions with members of their culture. Looks at language specifically. Also looks at art, media, math.
Information processing approach
draws parallels to the human mind as a computer. Changes in capacity, speed, storage, retrieval.
Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Model
-Bronfenbrenner argues that as we age we have different microsystems that develop along with the environment and society and how that effects development. Looks at how different systems effect the environment of humans.
-Bioecological Model: a developing person has unique biological and psychological traits but is a part of a series of environmental systems. The systems and the unique person interact with each other and influence development.
-immediate physical and social environment. In which the person interacts face to face with other people. A person's first microsystem is their family. Then it could be preschool, elementary school...etc.
-The interrelationships between two or more microsystems. For example: family and school. They work together.
-consists of influences of social settings that individuals do not experience directly but that can still influence development. Ex: parent's system can effect the child. Parents bad day at work can result in them being in a bad mood.
-larger cultural context in which the other systems are embedded. Families are influenced by religion and socioeconomic status.
-to capture the idea that people in their environments and the relations between them change over time and unfold particular patterns or sequences over a person's lifetime.
~won't be tested on this.
-The genetic endowment that members of a species have in common. Humans speak. Dogs speak to each other.
Darwin's theory of evolution arguments
Genetic variation-within a species.
Adaptation variables-some genes aid in adaptation more than others.
Natural selection-genes that aid in adapting to their environment will be passed to future generations more frequently then genes that do not.
Modern evolutionary psychology
-Genes are affected by the environment. The application of evolutionary theory to understand why humans think and behave the way they do.
-Learning to adapt to changing conditions and pass what we learn to the next generation.
created at conception when a sperm and ovum unite.
-threadlike bodies in the nucleus of each cell that contain genes. A sperm has 23 chromosomes. An ovum has 23 chromosomes. When they combine they create the zygote which has 46 chromosomes.
basic units of heredity.
the specialized process of cell division in the sex cell.
normal cell division. Divides to produce two identical cells. Each containing 46 chromosomes.
Identical twins (mono zygotic)
result when one zygote divides to perform two genetically identical individuals.
Fraternal twins (dizygotic twins)
result when two ova are released and both are fertilized by two different sperm.
Determination of Sex
23rd pair of chromosome determines sex.
biologically male. Men determine the sex of their children.
genetic makeup of what a person inherits
characteristics a person eventually has.
the activation of particular genes and particular cells in the body at a particular time. Gene expression converts genotypes into phenotypes.
Single Gene Pair Inheritance
one pair of genes. One pair from the mom and one from the dad
genes that are expressed when paired with a recessive gene. (D)
weaker genes that can be dominated. (d)
-If you have a parent who has two dominant genes there is no way that a recessive gene is going to express itself.
-Traits that are influenced by the 23rd sex chromosome, instead on the other 22 chromosomes.
-red/green colorblindness and hemophilia (blood clotting issues) are both sex linked issues.
-most important characteristics are influenced by multiple pairs of genes interacting with multiple environmental factors.
-New gene appears that neither bio-parent has.
-Occur when a child receives too many or too few chromosomes at conception.
-A deficiency in the blood's ability to clot. Sex-linked inheritance.
-Blood disease where the blood cells are sickle-shaped instead of round: it can cause clotting, hard breathing, and pain. It is caused by the recessive gene pair.
Recessive Gene pairs: Carriers
-Carriers because they can transmit the disease without having the disease.
-easiest and most common method. Sound waves are used to scan the womb and create a visual image of the fetus.
-used to detect chromosomal abnormalities. Where a needle is inserted into a mother's abdomen to sample amniotic fluid.
Chronic Villus Sampling
-genetic samples are studied, but can be done earlier than Amniocentesis. A catheter is inserted into the vagina and cervix into the chorion. A chorion is the outermost membrane surrounding an embryo.
Maternal Blood Sampling
-test for various chemicals that can indicate abnormalities in the fetus. There is no risk to the fetus. This is just getting a sample of the mom's blood.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis
involves in vitro fertilization and implanting embryos without chromosomal abnormalities or genes with disorders.
-The scientific study of the extent to which genetic and environmental differences among people are responsible for differences in their physical and psychological traits.
~WILL BE ON EXAM it is either answer A or B depending on the version of the test.
-The proportion of the differences in a trait among a group of people that is due to genetic differences among these people.
-Refers to the degree to which heredity is responsible for a particular characteristic or trait.
-we compare traits in identical versus fraternal twins and we also look at twins who are raised apart and those who are raised together.
-we look at whether children who were adopted early in life are more similar to their biological parents or their adoptive parents.
-we look at children who were raised in a non-biological family. Are the children's more similar to biological family or non-biological family?
-the percentage of pairs studied in which one member displays the trait and the others does too.
Shared environment- Same house, family, etc.
Non-shared environmental influences-experiences unique to that individual. Different teachers, friends, jobs.
-the analysis of particular genes and their effects.
Intellectual Abilities: Twins
Raised Together Raised Apart
Ident .86 .72
Fraternal .60 .52 ~Intelligence is a strongly inherited trait.
-IQ scores of children who are adopted correlate more strongly with biological parents than with their adoptive parents.
-the tendency to respond in predictable ways, such as, sociability and emotional reactions. Temperament is the building blocks to our later personality traits.
-has a strong genetic basis. It is a break from reality. This includes having hallucinations and illusions. It is not curable, only treatable.
-With identical twins, if one is diagnosed, there is a 48% chance that the other will be diagnosed.
-With fraternal twins, if one is diagnosed, there will be a 17% chance that the other will be diagnosed.
-10% of children who have a parent with schizophrenia will develop it. Even if the child is adopted.
The Heritability of Different Traits
-Physical traits are more heritable than psychological traits. Ex: height, weight, blood pressure, alpha activity in the brain.
-The effects of our genes depend on what kind of environment we experience. How we respond to the environment, depends on what genes we have.
-Ways in which a person's genes and environment are systematically interrelated.
Passive Gene-Environment Correlations
-the parents give the kids both their environment and their genes. The parent doesn't have to promote anything different for the kids.
Evocative Gene-Environment Correlations
-a child's gene evokes or brings forth certain reactions from others.
Active Gene-Environment Correlations
-children's genotypes influences the type of environment they seek.
-Over and above birth.
Environmental factors that can effect whether or not particular genes are expressed.
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