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Stats (probability)
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Terms in this set (23)
action or trial through which specific results are obtained
Probability experiment
the result of a single trial in a probability experiment
outcome
the set of all possible outcomes of a probability experiment
sample space
consists of one or more outcomes; is a subset of the sample space
event
an event that consists of a single outcome
simple event
Tossing heads and rolling a 3 is an example of what?
simple event (single outcome)
equation for the fundamental Counting principle and what is it?
If two events can happen m and n ways then number of ways an event can occur in sequence is m*n
Classical probability states that ____
each outcome in a sample space is equally likely
equation for classical probability
P(E) = # of outcomes in Event E/Number of outcomes in sample space
Type of probability based on the frequency of an event
empirical probability
equation for empirical probability
frequency of event / total frequency
States that after an n number of experiments, the empirical probability will converge back to the expected probability over an infinite amount of time
Law of large numbers
range of probabilities rule states that the probability of an event is between what two numbers
0 and 1
How is relative risk found
risk in the treated / risk in the untreated or control group
represents a numerical value associated with each outcome of a probability distribution
random variable
For data to be a valid discrete probability distribution what conditions must it follow?
Sum of probabilities must equal 1
each probability must be between 0 and 1
equation for finding the mean of the discrete probability distribution and what happens
µ = ∑xP(x) - each value of x is multiplied by its corresponding probability and the products are added
Type of experiment that is repeated for a fixed number of trials and th eonly two possible outcomes are a success or a failure
Binomial experiment...
In a binomial experiment, is the number of success the same for each trial
Yes
Is this a binomial experiment?
A certain surgical procedure has an 85% chance of success. A doctor performs the procedure on eight patients. The random variable represents the number of successful surgeries
Yes
1. each surgery reps an independent trial
2. only 2 outcomes
3. the probability for success is the same for each surgery (.85)
4. random variable counts the number of successful surgeries
Factorial of 5
5! = 120
selection of a number of objects from a group without regards to order
combination
equation for combinations
nCr = n!/(n-r)! r!
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