rod shaped cell structures that direct the activities of a cell and passes on the traits of a cell to new cells
third stage of interphase during which organelle replication and protein synthesis takes place
the information which is passed from one cellular generation to the next (encoded in DNA in humans).
A member of a chromosome pair, both of which are similar in shape, size, and the genes they carry
the portion of the cell cycle where the cell is not dividing; includes G1, S and G2 stages.
the stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the replicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate of the cell
process of cellular division in which the daughter cells are genetically identical to themselves and to the parent cell.
the first stage of mitosis /meiosis in cell division; characterized by the condensation of the chromosomes and the dissolution of the nuclear envelope
chromosomes which have undergone DNA replication and contain two sister chromatids.
two identical copies of a parent chromosome which are attached to one another at the centromere.
the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes
the region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis
contractile ring of microfilaments in animal cell where the cell membrane is divided
the precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two
the use of chemical agents to treat or control some types of cancer (destroys cells or prevents them from dividing)
a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
a process of asexual reproduction in which a new individual develops from an outgrowth of the parent
single, specialized cells that are units of reproduction that can be formed asexually or sexually (ex. bread mold)
cell division that occurs in sex cells in which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half.
exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
a collection of glands and groups of cells that secrete hormones that regulate growth,development, and homeostasis
class of hormones that cannot pass through the cell membrane; less likely to be stored in the body
class of hormones that can pass through the cell membrane; can be stored in the body
one messenger model
mechanism of hormone action used by steroid hormones which bring their message directly into the cell
two messenger model
mechanism of hormone action used by protein hormones; attach to cell membrane receptors which activate enzymes in the cell to produce the desired effect
A protein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates ovulation in females and androgen production in males.
follicle stimulating hormone
secreted in increasing amounts during puberty, by the anterior pituitary gland, to stimulate development of reproductive cell follicles
A peptide hormone released from the anterior pituitary, it stimulates the production and secretion of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex.
A hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released from the posterior pituitary. It induces contractions of the uterine muscles during labor.
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland which aids in water reabsorption by the kidney
part of the brain which links the endocrine and nervous system, and controls the pituitary gland.
Hypersecretion of the GH in adults which causes an overgrowth of bones in the hands, feet, and face
Produced by the thyroid gland and decreases the blood calcium levels by stimulating calcium deposit in the bones. The antagonist of the parathyroid hormone.
condition affecting nerves causing muscle spasms as a result of low amounts of calcium in the blood caused by a deficiency of the parathyroid hormone
a condition in which the body's bones become weak and break easily; may be caused by hypersecretion of parahormone
one of a pair of ductless glands, located above the kidneys, consisting of a cortex, which produces steroidal hormones, and a medulla, which produces epinephrine and norepinephrine.
secreted from the adrenal cortex, aids the body during stress by regulating glucose, carbohydrates, and fat levels
a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland, regulates mineral balance in blood and controls fluid volumes
excessive production of cortisol by adrenal cortex with symptoms of abnormal fat deposits and wasting away of muscle
located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon
a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans of the pancreas responsible for regulating the metabolism of glucose
a condition in which the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin or the body's cells cannot use it properly, characterized by excessive thirst, weight loss/gain, frequent urination.
a general term for female steroid sex hormones that are secreted by the ovary and responsible for typical female sexual characteristics
A hormone produced by the ovaries which acts with estrogen to bring about the menstrual cycle.
The male sex hormone produced by the testes which promotes the maturation of the reproductive system accessory structures, and development of the male secondary sex characteristics.
A small mass of tissue near the center of the brain; it secretes the hormone melatonin.
Gland located near the heart; it aids in the body's defense against infection by making antibodies
the branching extensions of a neuron that receives messages and conducts impulses toward the cell body
node of ranvier
small gap between myelinated segments where axonal membrane is exposed; increase speed of impulses
the potential difference between the two sides of the membrane of a nerve cell when the cell is not conducting an impulse
change in electrical potential that occurs between the inside and outside of a nerve or muscle fiber when it is stimulated
a chemical messenger that travels across the synapse from one neuron to the next and influences whether a neuron will generate an action potential(impulse)
connects the hemispheres; found deep inside cerebrum; allows hemispheres to share information
autonomic nervous system
The part of the nervous system that controls involuntary action and responses.
a progressive disease that destroys brain cells and is identified by muscular tremors, slowing of movement, and partial facial paralysis
a disease that results in the progressive loss of an individual's memory and mental capacity.
"Lou Gherig's Disease" - progressive neurological disease in which the motor neurons degenerate to the point of total loss of motor function. The intelligence, memory, and personality is unaffected.
the clear colorless transparent jelly that fills the posterior chamber of the eyeball
the membrane that separates the outer ear from the middle ear and that vibrates when sound waves strike it (tympanic membrane)
3 loops of fluid filled tubes that that are attached to to the cochlea; maintains equilibrium
the stage of the menstrual cycle where the pituitary gland produces FSH which starts the maturation of an egg
secreted by pituitary; regulates estrogen secretion and ovum development in the female and testosterone production in the male
Hormone produced by the ovaries which controls the development of eggs and adult female characteristics.
follicle stimulating hormone
secreted by the anterior pituitary gland to stimulate development of reproductive cell follicles
the solid mass of cells resulting from the cleavage of the ovum before the formation of a blastula.
hollow ball of cells formed during the early stages of embryological development; also known as a blastocyst
the embryo in the stage of development after the blastula; contains the embryonic germ layers
The primitive spinal cord that develops from the ectoderm, the top of which swells to form the brain.
ability of one group of embryonic cells to influence the development of another group
The outermost of four extraembryonic membranes; contributes to the formation of the mammalian placenta.
The innermost of four extraembryonic membranes; encloses a fluid-filled sac in which the embryo is suspended.
The membrane that is attached to a vertebrate embryo and that encloses the yolk;stores energy reserves for the developing embryo.
organ in placental mammals through which nutrients,oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother
Harmful agents or substances that can cause malformations or defects in a embryo of fetus
the stage in life during which reproductive hormones begin to be formed. Reproductive development occurs during this stage
cells in the seminiferous tubules that support, regulate, and nourish developing sperm
Exocrine gland, in men, at the base of the urinary bladder. It secretes alkaline fluid (part of semen) into the urethra during ejaculation to neutralize the acidity of the female reproductive tract.
gland in human males that secretes an alkaline fluid that neutralizes the acidity of the female reproductive tract during ejaculation
hormone that acts on the hypothalamus to stimulate the production of releasing factors that trigger release of FSH. The interaction of FSH and inhibin controls the rate of formation of sperm.
steroid hormone produced in the testicles that is responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics
the mucous membrane that lines the uterus and increases in thickness in the latter part of menstrual cycle
finger-like projections that sweep eggs from where they exit the ovaries into the fallopian tubes
in a human female, period of 25 - 40 days during which hormones stimulate the development of the uterine lining, and an egg is developed and released from an ovary. If the egg is not fertilized, the uterine lining is shed as the cycle begins again.
in the female reproductive system, groups of cells held in the ovaries. Each one of these cells contains an ovum (egg) that will develop
stage of the menstrual cycle that begins with ovulation. During this stage, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone, which inhibits the growth of other follicles so that only one ovum is released during each cycle.
period in women's life during which a decrease in estrogen and progesterone results in an end of menstrual cycle
hormone replacement therapy
administration of low levels of estrogen and/or progesterone to alleviate symptoms of menopause
diseases such as AIDS, chlamydia, or genital herpes that is normally passed from one person to another through sexual activity
a way of avoiding pregnancy, using either artificial methods such as condoms and birth control pills or natural methods such as avoiding sexual intercourse during a woman's none fertile periods
first stage in embryonic development, when a sperm and egg interact successfully to form a zygote
thin outer layer (ectoderm) that encloses the embryo of mammals, attaches the fertilized ovum to the wall of the uterus, and absorbs nutrients
the embryo's attachment of itself to the endometrium, occurs within the first week after fertilization in humans
thin flexible sheets of tissue that are not part of the embryo but that support, nourish and protect it
the process in which each of the three layers of the gastrula develop into different parts of the body
May cause the release of oxytocin. Prostaglandins together with oxytocin cause the uterus to contract, signaling the beginning of labour