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Key Terms Historical Figures Chapter 15
Terms in this set (27)
King of France. He signed the Edict of Nantes, religious toleration of the Huguenots, French Calvinists. He converted to Catholicism for the sake of solidifying his power. His rule saw increasing emphasis on national sovereignty.
A king of England in the early sixteenth century. With the support of his Parliament, he establishes himself as head of the Christian Church in England, in place of the pope, after the pope refused to allow his marriage to Catherine of Aragon to be dissolved. (1491-1547)
Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII, and marquess of Pembroke in her own right. Mother of Elizabeth I. Protestant. Beheaded after being convicted of treason, adultery, and incest
The emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Was ruler of both the Spanish Empire form 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire from 1519, as well as the Habsburg Netherlands from 1506. New of Catherine of Aragon, the first wife of Henry VIII
Son of Charles V, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. King of Spain and Portugal and husband of Mary of England; he supported the Counter Reformation and sent the Spanish Armada to invade England. (1527-1598)
Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand
A king and Queen of Spain in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. They united their country and sponsored the exploration of the New World by Christopher Columbus. Moved the Capital of Spain from Toledo to Madrid.
King of England (1603-1625) and of Scotland as James IV (1567-1625). The son of Mary Queen of Scots, he succeeded the heirless Elizabeth I as the first Stuart king of England.
Was and English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and of Ireland (1625-1648). His power struggles with parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which he was defeated.
Radical puritan. Fought Charles I during the English Civil Wars and helped the Puritans win. He was instrumental in having the king, Charles I, tried and executed. He ruled England during it only Republic.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1688). the last Stuart king to rule both England and Scotland, he was deposed by his Protestant daughter Mary (Later, Mary II) and her husband, William of Orange.
William and Mary
Ruled jointly after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 had expelled Mary's father, King James II
Was a French jurist and political philosopher, member of the parliament of Paris. He is best known for his Theory of Sovereignty: conceived it as supreme, perpetual, and indivisible power, marked by the ability to make laws without consent of any other.
Was the chief of government under King Louis XIII. He achieved two difficult goals in his career: establishing absolute monarchy in France and breaking the political power of the Huguenots: French Protestants.
Ruled 1643-1715, King of France, his reign, the longest in French history, was characterized by a magnificent court, the expansion of French influence in Europe, ad the establishment of overseas colonies.
He was known as the Sun King and was the prime example of absolute monarchy in the 17th to 18th century Europe. He was significant for a few reasons: Government control- by building the palace at Versailles and holding court there, he was able to control the policy- making in absolute France.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Born in Porto, Portugal, in 1394. Although he was neither a sailor nor a navigator, he sponsored a great deal of exploration along the west coast of Africa. Under his patronage, Portuguese crews founded the country's first colonies and visited regions previously unknown to Europeans. He was one of the primary players in the European Age of Discovery and Exploration. Under the leadership of the prince, Portugal took the principal role during most of the 15th century in searching of a rout to Asia by sailing south around Africa.
His most influential accomplishments in astronomy were his three laws of Planetary Motion, which were used by Isaac Newton to develop his theory of universal gravitation: First law stated- the planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun at a focus.
His more valuable work was philosophical. Bacon took up Aristotelian ideas, arguing for an empirical, inductive approach, known as the scientific method, which is the foundation of modern scientific inquiry.
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars: demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642).
Sir Isaac Newton
Enlgish mathematician and physicist; remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion (1642-1727).
Painter, sculptor, architect, and poet. He is considered the most famous artist of the Italian Renaissance, with works including the "David" and "Pieta" statues and the ceiling paintings of Rome's Sistine Chapel, including the "Last Judgement".
Leonardo Da Vinci
His natural genius crossed so many disciplines that he epitomized the term "Renaissance Man". Today he remains best known for his art, including two paintings that remain among the world's most famous and admired, Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. Art, he believed, as indisputably connected with science and nature.
According to him, the main purpose of government is to protect those natural rights that the individual cannot effectively protect in a state of nature. If the government doesn't protect these rights the people have the right to overthrow the government.
The father of Economics. Modern capitalism owes its roots to him and his Wealth of Nations, which many considered the single most important economic work in history.
His writing were responsible for fractionalizing the Catholic Church and sparking the Protestant Reformation. He saw the unjust practices of the Catholic Church, such as the selling of indulgences, he called the church to reform its way. P5 theses.
He held a view on predestination sometimes referred to as "double predestination". This is the view that God has actively chosen some people for damnation as well as for salvation. This decision was made before the child was born.
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