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A chemical messenger that influences or controls the activities of other tissues or organs.


Secrete the chemical substances called hormones; they're ductless glands--that is, they secrete the hormones directly into the blood and not into ducts.

Endocrine Glands

The study of the endocrine system.


Each hormone binds to a specific tissue; it may be located close to or at a distance from the endocrine gland.

Target Tissue / Organ

The hormone-receptor relationship insures ______, meaning that there is a specific hormone for each receptor.


the interaction of the hormone with its receptor stimulates the production of this such as silica Adina Celine monophosphate (cAMP). The lowercase CAMP, in turn, helps activate enzymes in the cell.

Second messenger

many of the endocrine glands maintain normal plasma levels of their hormones through a mechanism called this.

Negative feedback

blood levels of most hormones are also controlled by that. it's a rhythmic alteration in a hormones rate of secretion.


A 24-hour rhythms; its pattern repeats every 24 hours.

Circadian rhythm

you factor biorhythms is so important on drug affect that a branch of pharmacology addresses this issue; it is called this.


the functions of the nervous system and the endocrine system are so closely related that this word is used.


another name for pituitary gland.


the secretion of the anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus. Although it is part of the brain, the hypothalamus secrete several hormones and is therefore considered to be an endocrine gland. These hormones are called these.

Releasing hormones and releasing-inhibiting hormones

the hypothalamus secretes hormones into a network of capillaries that connect the hypothalamus with anterior pituitary gland this connecting capillaries are called this.

hypothalamus-hypophyseal portal system

the anterior pituitary gland is composed of glandular epithelial tissue and is also called this. the interior pituitary secrete six major hormones. These hormones control other glands and the fact many organ systems. In fact, the interior pituitary affects so many other glands that it is often called the master gland. You must understand the command of the grand gland! The hormones of the anterior pituitary include thyroid-stimulating hormone (T capital SH); adrenocorticotropic tropic hormone (ACTH); growth hormone (GH); gonadotropins; and prolactin (PRL).


stimulates the growth of bone and soft tissue; stimulates the synthesis of glucose during periods of fasting.

Growth hormone (GH)

stimulates the breast to develop and produce milk.


stimulates the fire Roy gland to produce thyroid hormones (T3 and T4)

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete steroid, especially cortisol.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

relay structure and processing center for most sensory information going to the cerebrum.

Gonadotropic hormones

stimulates the development of ova and sperm.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

causes ovulation in women and stimulates the secretion of progesterone and women and testosterone in men.

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

stimulates water reabsorption by the kidney; also constricts blood vessels

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

contracts uterine muscle during labor; releases milk from the mammary glands (breast-feeding).


Triiodothryonine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4, or thyroxine) are secreted by the thyroid gland; control metabolic rate and regulate growth and development

thyroid hormones (T3, T4)

secreted by the thyroid gland; decreases plasma levels of calcium


secreted by the parathyroid glands: increases plasma calcium.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

stipulates that "fight or flight" response.

catecholamines: epinephrine and norepinephrine

a glucocorticoid that helps regulate glucose, fat, and protein metabolism; is part of the stress response.


A mineralocorticoid that causes the kidneys reabsorb sodium and water and to excrete potassium; helps regulate fluid and electrolyte balance


especially the androgens (testosterone); helps develop the secondary sex characteristics in the female and male.

Sex hormones

secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans; helps regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats; lowers blood glucose.


secreted by the ovaries. stimulates the development of the over (eggs) and development of the secondary sex characteristics and the female

Estrogens and progesterone

secreted primarily by the testes. The chief male androgen; stimulates the development of sperm and the secondary sex characteristics the male.


simulates the maturation of the T-lymphocytes


secreted by the pineal gland and helps set the biorhythms.


stimulates the secretion of melanin; causes darkening of the skin.

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

the remaining warmers on the anterior pituitary gland.

Tropic hormones

the posterior pituitary gland is an extension of the hypothalamus. The posterior to Jerry's composer nervous tissues and is therefore called this.


this is released from the posterior pituitary gland and in an attempt to conserve water. The primary target organ for this is the kidney. Because of the kidney to reabsorb water from the urine and return it to the blood.

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

antidiuretic hormone also causes the blood vessels to constrict, thereby elevating blood pressure. Because of this blood pressure-elevating effect, ADH is also called this.


the target organs of this are the uterus and the mammary glands (breast). it stimulates the muscles of the uterus to contract and plays a role in labor and the delivery of the baby. This this word literally means "patients with birth," and this type of drug is one that causes uterine contractions and hastens delivery.


one of the pituitary gland is divided into two main parts, the interior and the posterior pituitary, there is a small, third lobe that secretes this.

melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

the largest of endocrine glands and is located in the anterior neck; it is situated on the front and sides of the trachea.

Thyroid gland

the thyroid gland has two lobes connected by a band of tissue called this.


the thyroid gland is composed of many secretory units.


the cavity and each follicle of the thyroid gland is filled with a clear, viscous substance called this.


follicular cells secrete to thyroid hormones.

Triiodithyronine (T3) and Tetraiodothyronine (T4, or Thyroxine)

hypothyroidism in an adult results and a condition called this, and is a slowdown metabolic state characterized by a slow heart rate, sluggish peristalis resulting in constipation, a low body temperature, low-energy, loss of hair, and weight gain. The skin becomes puffy and pick because of the accumulation of a thick fluid under the skin; hence the name.


In the infant is born with no thyroid gland, a condition called this develops. An infant with this fails to develop both physically and mentally. The child will be short and stocky and abnormal skeletal development and severe mental retardation. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with thyroid hormone can prevent further development delay.


an excess of thyroid hormones produce this, a speed-up metabolic state.


a type of hyperthyroidism and it is characterized by an increase in heart rate, an increase in Paris at Tallis resulting in diarrhea, elevation in body temperature (heat intolerance), hyperactivity, weight loss, and wide emotional swings. It is also characterized by bulging eyes.

Graves' disease

the para follicular cells of the thyroid gland secrete a hormone called this. although it is a thyroid hormone, the facts are very different from T3 and T4. It helps regulate blood levels of calcium.


there's four of these tiny glands that lie along the posterior surface of the thyroid gland.

parathyroid glands

when the hand and wrist muscles are contracted and not relaxed, they are producing a carpal spasm. This is caused by calcium normally stabilizing nerves and muscle membranes. In the absence of sufficient calcium the nerve and muscle membranes become unstable and continuously fire electrical signals, causing the muscles remain contracted.


the clinical effects of this are best describe as: bones, stones, moans grow, and groans. Patient develops hyperparathyroidism in response to the tumor in the parathyroid gland. The PTH stimulates osteoclast activity in the bones, thereby moving calcium from the bones to the bloodand causing metrics. Bone pain results from persistent osteoclast at 70 (bones and groans). It causes excess calcium to be filtering into the urine, causing less; the excess calcium in the urine precipitates out as kidney stones (bones, stones, and groans). It also depresses the nerves, cardiac, and gastrointestinal systems causing a variety of symptoms including depression (moans), fatigue, bradycardia, anorexia, and constipation.


the two small gland located above the kidneys. These consist of two regions: anterior medulla and an outer cortex.

adrenal glands

the inner region of the adrenal gland and is considered an extension of the sympathetic nervous system.

Adrenal medulla

the outer region of the adrenal gland secrete hormones called steroids.

Adrenal cortex

these are lipid-soluble hormones made from cholesterol.


affect carbohydrates. They convert amino acids into glucose and help maintain blood glucose levels between meals.


the chief glucocorticoid. It's a stress hormone and that it is secreted a greater amount during times of stress.


the chief mineralocorticoid, and plays an important role in the regulation of blood volume and blood pressure and in the concentration of electrolytes, especially Saul's. Is often called the salt retaining hormone. The primary target organ is the kidney. It reabsorbs sodium and water and eliminates potassium in the urine.


a long, slender organ that lies transversely across the upper abdomen, stunning from the curve of the duo deadened drum to the spleen. It functions as both as an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland.


two hormones of the pancreas secretes.

Insulin and glucagon

the hormone-secreting cells of the pancreas.

islets of Langerhans

secrete glucagon.

Alpha cells

secrete insulin

beta cells

is released in response to increased blood levels of glucose as occurs following a meal.The secretion of this decreases as blood levels of glucose decrees.


a second pancreatic hormone, that is secreted by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans. Primary action is to increase blood glucose levels.


the sex glands and referred to the ovaries in the female and the testes in the male


it lies in the thoracic cavity behind the sternum. It is much larger and child then in an adult. the gland involutes, or become smaller, as a child enters purity.

thymus gland

the hormones that the thymus gland secrete.


a cone shaped gland located close to the thalamus in the brain. It has been called the body's "biological clock", controlling many of the biorhythms.

pineal gland

the hormone that the pineal gland secretes.


did those tissue secretes several cytokines that adversely affect glucose metabolism and predispose the person said type II diabetes. First, the cytokines oppose the action of insulin, therebydecreasing the transport of glucose into the cells. Secondly, the cytokines stimulate the liver to make excess glucose. Both these actions increased blood glucose, causing hyperglycemia.

Diabetes mellitus

excess secretion of growth hormones in the adult.


A deficiency of adrenocortical hormone. If untreated, the patient may develop life-threatening adrenal shock

Addison's disease

a deficiency of thyroid hormone during fetal development, causing a profound physical and mental developmental delay.


excess secretion of adrenal cortical hormones. It is also present in patients who take steroids as a medication.

Cushing's syndrome

a deficiency of antidiuretic hormones, causing the patient to urinate approximately 5 to 6L of pale, dilute urine per day

diabetes insipidus

a deficiency of insulin. The deficiency affects carbohydrates, protein, and fat metabolism. If untreated, the patient develops diabetic ketoacidesis, profound dehydration, and shock. there are several types of this is an epidemic in the United States. Type IDM, also called juvenile onset diabetes, usually develops in children must be treated with an insulin. Type IID in is called adult onset diabetes the typical adult onset diabetic is order, abuse, and said that Terri. Type II DM is often treated with oral hypoglycemic agents but may require insulin injections.

diabetes mellitus

excess secretion of growth hormone in a child, usually caused by a pituitary tumor. A deficiency of growth hormone as a child causes pituitary dwarfism.


an enlargement of the thyroid gland. It damn enlargement that secretes excess thyroid hormones and produces symptoms of hypothyroidism.a non-toxic or iodine deficiency one does not produce excess thyroid hormones and therefore is not accompanied by symptoms of hypothyroidism.


a form of hypothyroidism. The hyper secretion of thyroid hormones, T3 NT 4 causes an increase in metabolism. A severe episode of hypothyroidism is called thyroid storm, a condition that can exhaust the body and cause the heart to fail.

Graves' disease

a cluster of symptoms that occur primarily in obese and sedentary persons. The signs and symptoms include insulin resistance/hyperglycemia, hypertension, and decreased "good" cholesterol.

Metabolic syndrome

a deficiency of thyroid hormone in adults. The deficiency causes a decrease in metabolism.


a deficiency of parathyroid hormone results in low plasma levels of calcium. The hypocalcemia, in turn, causes neuromuscular hyperactivity and sustain muscle contraction.


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