American History Ch. 18
Terms in this set (62)
Selective Training and Service Act
Pres. Roosevelt pressured Congress to pass this act in 1940, which provided for all American males between the ages of 21 to 35 to register for compulsory military service. This was the first time a peacetime military draft had been initiated, signaling that the president's stance was shifting from isolationism to interventionism. This act was expanded to include all 18 to 65-year-old male when the United States declared war on Japan.
Name for American soldiers durring WWII, dreamed of home, wanted the protect the four freedoms
Freedom of Speech, Religion, Want, from Fear; used by FDR to justify a loan for Britain, if the loan was made, the protection of these freedoms would be ensured
Indians who transmitted messages in their native languages; languages which the Germans and Japanese could not understand
Office of War Mobilization
Federal agency formed to coordinate issues related to war production during World War II
cargo ships built in the United States during World War II. They were cheap and quick to build and came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output. Based on vessels ordered by Britain to replace ships torpedoed by German U-boats, they were purchased for the U.S. fleet and for lend-lease provision to Britain. Eighteen American shipyards built 2,751 Libertys between 1941 and 1945, easily the largest number of ships produced to a single design.
Gardens that citizens planted to raise their own vegetables, so that food could be sent to the troops.
Sold by US government during WWII to finance war effort.
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
A wartime conference held at Casablanca, Morocco that was attended by de Gaulle, Churchill, and FDR. The Allies demanded the unconditional surrender of the axis, agreed to aid the Soviets, agreed on the invasion Italy, and the joint leadership of the Free French by De Gaulle and Giraud.
Large squadrons releasing aerial explosives in waves to inflict the most damage in targeted areas. The British Royal Air Force used this tactic in various battles in Europe and the Pacific to inflict damage on Axis power strong holds.
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
Battle of Stalingrad
(1942) World War II battle between invading German forces and Soviet defenders for control of Stalingrad; each side sustained hundreds of thousands of casualties; Germany's defeat marked turning point in the war
The code name for the beginning plans of D-day and the invasion of France's coast
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
Discrimination or hostility toward Jewish people. Popular during WWII
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
"Night of Broken Glass" -the night of November 9, 1938, on which Nazi troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues throughout Germany and Austria
An area of Warsaw sealed off by the Nazis to confine the Jewish population, forcing them into poor, unsanitary conditions
A January 1942 conference during which Nazi officials decided to implement the "final solution" to the "Jewish question"—a euphemism for the extermination of European Jews and other minorities at concentration camps in eastern Europe.
Acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethical, racial, or religious group (i.e.) Holocaust
WWII German camp created solely for the purpose of mass murder, especially of Jews
War Refugee Board
A government agency in America created by FDR in 1944 against the will of the State Department to assist people threatened by the Nazis, and eventually was able to save 200,000 people, as well as give money to other countries to free Jews.
Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes
This man ran FDR's Office of Economic Stabilization. Under his rule from 1942 to 1946, the US was an absolute socialist model run off of this department. He was arguably the most powerful man in America during the war
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Field Marshall Erwin Rommel was one of the most celebrated Nazi commanders during World War II, a sly tactician whose exploits in North Africa earned him the nickname "The Desert Fox."
Dwight D. Eisenhower
American General during WWII. He began by leading the Allied troops in Operation Torch, an invasion of Axis-controlled North Africa, in which he succeeded. He then became the commander of the Allied forces in Europe. He became president in 1953.
Allied Commander of the Third Army. Was instrumental in winning the Battle of the Bulge. Considered one of the best military commanders in American history.
United States secretary of state who formulated a program providing economic aid to European countries after World War II. The Marshall Plan provided massive American economic assistance to help Europe recover from the war.
Bataan Death March
A long trek across the Philippines that American and Filipino prisoners of war were forced to make by the Japanese in 1942. The Japanese forced 75,000 American and Filipino prisoners too march 65 miles with little food or water. About 100,000 prisoners died or were killed.
International agreement governing the humane treatment of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war. Breeched by Japanese soldiers who participated in the Bataan Death March
1st American Volunteer Group (AVG) of the Chinese Air Force; trained in Burma before the American entry into World War II with the intention of defending China against Japanese forces
Battle of the Coral Sea
1942 battle between Japanese and American naval forces that stopped the Japanese advance on Australia
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Battle of Guadalcanal
(1942-1943) World War II battle in the Pacific; it represented the first Allied counter-attack against Japanese forces; Allied victory forced Japanese forces to abandon the island
the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.
Battle of Leyte Gulf
the largest naval engagement in military history in which Japan lost most of its remaining sea power and the ability to defend the Philippines. First use of the suicide attacks by Japanese pilots
During World War II, Japanese suicide pilots trained to sink Allied ships by crashing bomb-filled planes into them. Means "divine wind"
Battle of Iwo Jima
A battle in February and March 1945 in which U.S. forces took Iwo Jima, a small but strategically important island off the Japanese coast. During the battle, an Associated Press photographer took a world-famous photograph of U.S. Marines raising the American flag on the summit of Mt. Suribachi.
Battle of Okinawa
(1945) World War II victory for the Allied troops that resulted in the deaths of almost all of the 100,000 Japanese defenders; the battle claimed 12,000 American lives
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
American bomber that dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) Civil rights organization started in 1944 and best known for its "freedom rides," bus journeys challenging racial segregation in the South in 1961.
Zoot Suit Riots
A series of riots in L.A. California during WWII, soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican youths because of the zoot suits they wore.
United States labor agents recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers from Mexico. The program stimulated emigration for Mexico.
Spanish word for neighborhood; barriozation - the dramatic increase in Hispanic population in a given neighborhood.
confined or imprisoned; what happened to Japanese-Americans during World War II
Korematsu v. United States
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor.
American-born children of Japanese immigrants; second generation Japanese Americans.
Rosie the Riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories during WWII. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
Little Boy and Fat Man
The names of the two atomic bombs which were dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima.
"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945
General Douglas MacArthur
He was one of the most-known American military leaders of WWII.He liberated the Phillipines and made the Japanese surrender at Tokyo in 1945.
Better known as Chiang Kaishek, statesman and general who attempted to unite China through military strength. Upon abandoning mainland China, set up a Nationalist Chinese State in Taiwan. President of China (1928 - 31) president of Taiwan (1950 - 1975);
General Joseph Stilwell
sent by U.S. Army to help provide critical supplies to China by a land route through India and across the Himalayas, U.S. general that leads American, Indian, & Chinese forces in defending India & recapturing Burma
Lt. Col. James Doolittle
led 16 bomber air raids in the attack on Tokyo and other Japanese cities on April 18th, 1942
Admiral Chester Nimitz
He was the commander of the Pacific Fleet during WWII, and he was the man who directed the U.S. victories at Midway, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa
Italian nuclear physicist (in the United States after 1939) who worked on artificial radioactivity caused by neutron bombardment and who headed the group that in 1942 produced the first controlled nuclear reaction (1901-1954)
Harry S. Truman
(1945-1949) and (1949-1953), Succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon his death. Led the country through the last few months of World War II, and made the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery. Created the CIA
A. Phillip Randolph
African-American civil rights leader and union organizer who planned a march on Washington to protest racial discrimination in war industries and the armed forces