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An instrument that measures the positions of the stars and planets to help navigators determine direction and latitude.


A navigational instrument used for finding magnetic north.


A boat designed for rough seas and long voyages; held many supplies.

Christopher Columbus

Credited for discovering the western hemisphere.

Amerigo Vespucci

First person to realize the new worlds was not in Asia, America was named after him.

Juan Ponce de Leon

Spanish explorer looking for the fountain of youth, but found Flordia instead.

Pedro Alveres Cabral

The first Portuguese explorer to reach the western hemisphere (Brazil-blown off course)

Ferdinand Magellan

First Portuguese explorer to sail all the way around the world.

Vasco Nunez de Balboa

Spanish explorer who first saw the Pacific ocean.

Strait of Magellan

Water way named after Magellan.


a spanish "conqueror" or soldier in the Americas

Hernando Cortez

Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)


Aztec emperor defeated and killed by the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortes.

Dona Marina

an Indian woman who had learned Spanish and who helped Cortes achieve his goals.


Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins. (p. 305)


Ruler of the Inca Empire when conquered by Pizarro

Fransisco Pizzaro

the spanish conquistador that conquered the mighty inca indians


Incan city full of riches


The capital city of the Incan Empire, Located in present-day Peru

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