Ap Biology Ch. 8 and Ch. 14
Terms in this set (53)
the succesive process of systematic gene-directed changes throughout an organisms life cycle
Four development processes
growth; differentiation; morphogenesis; determination
As cells divide, orchestrated changes in gene expression result in differences between cells that ultimately result in cell specialization. In differentiated cells, certain genes are expressed at particular times, but other genes may not be expressed at all
Cells in a developing embryo must become oriented to the body plan of the organism the embryo will become. Pattern formation involves cells' abilities to detect positional information that guides their ultimate fate.
As development proceeds, the form of the body—its organs and anatomical features—is generated. Morphogenesis may involve cell death as well as cell division and differentiation.
When a cell has potential to become different types of cells.
can give rise to only one cell type
can give rise to any cell type (zygote)
can give rise to multiple different cell types (early cells from blastula)
can give rise to a limited number of cell types (cells such as bone marrow)
commits a cell to a particular developmental pathway
the change in the fate of a cell due to interaction with an adjacent cell
First cell that forms after the fertilization of the egg by the sperm.
The process by which cells become specialized in form and function.
Cells with the ability to divide and differentiate along many different pathways.
Substances within the cell such as mRNA, proteins, organelles and other substances that influence the course of early development; they create the 3D arrangement of the organism.
The development of spatial organization in which the tissues and organs of an organism are all in the right place.
Programmed cell death.
A DNA sequence found within genes involved in the regulation of morphogenesis.
Genes with a DNA sequence that regulates morphogenesis.
Genes which control segmental patterning during development.
The different forms of a gene. Y and y are different alleles of the gene that determines seed color.
A locus on any chromosome but a sex chromosome. Not sex-linked.
Two different alleles at a locus are responsible for different phenotypes, and both alleles affect the phenotype of the heterozygote.
A trait expressed preferentially over another trait.
One gene masks the expression of a different gene for a different trait.
Offspring of a cross between true breeding plants, homozygous for the trait of interest
Offspring of a cross involving the F1 generation.
The genetic constitution of an organism with respect to a trait.
Differing alleles for a trait in an individual, such as Yy.
Both alleles for a trait are the same in an individual.
heterozygous; usually referring to the offspring of two true-breeding (homozygous) individuals differing in the traits of interest.
Intermediate phenotype in F1, parental phenotypes reappear in F2. The flowers of the snapdragon plant can be red, pink, or white. Color is determined at a single locus.
genes that are inherited together on the same chromosome.
mendel's law of independent assortment of alleles
Alleles of different genes are assorted independently of one another during the formation of gametes.
mendel's law of segregation
Alleles segregate from one another during the formation of gametes.
Cross involving parents differing in only one trait.
The physical appearance of an organism with respect to a trait, i.e. yellow (Y) or green (y) seeds in garden peas.
The opposite of dominant. A trait that is preferentially masked.
Sex determination is based on sex chromosomes
A gene coded on a sex chromosome, such as the X-chromosome linked genes of flies and man.
Generally a cross involving a homozygous recessive individual.
Homozygous for the true-breeding trait.
The non-mutant form of a gene, encoding the normal genetic function. Generally, but not always a dominant allele.
Principles of Dominance
In the heterozygous individual the dominant trait will be expressed
a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
A cross between two individuals, concentrating on two definable traits
a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
inheritance pattern in which a heterozygote expresses the distinct traits of both alleles
percentage of recombinants, meaning percentage of of offspring that had traits from crossover. recombination frequencies are lower when alleles are closer together.
individual who has one copy of the allele for a recessive disorder and does not exhibit symptoms
The superior fitness of heterozygous offspring as compared with that of their dissimilar homozygous parents.
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