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SOUND IN FILM AND VIDEO Acoustic properties of sound:
Terms in this set (24)
is the volume or level of the sound
- is the perceived "highness" or "lowness" of the sound (soprano, bass)
is the quality of a musical note or sound or tone that distinguishes
different types of sound production, such as voices or musical instruments. The
physical characteristics of sound that mediate the perception of timbre include
spectrum and envelope. Timbre is also known in psychoacoustics as tone quality
or tone color. For example, timbre is what, with a little practice, people use to
distinguish the saxophone from the trumpet in a jazz group, even if both
instruments are playing notes at the same pitch and loudness.
is a sound's rhythmic qualities, or the pulse, the beat. Time is a factor
here, as rhythm can be fast or slow.
- is a sound's spatial dimension. Sound is in 3D space with stereo
panning, Surround sound enhances that even further.
-stand for "Automated" or "Automatic" Dialog Replacement. Dialog that
cannot be salvaged from production tracks must be re-recorded in a process
called looping or ADR. Looping originally involved recording an actor who
spoke lines in sync to lengths of recording tape. ADR, though faster, is still
An actor watches the image repeatedly while listening to the original production
track on headphones as a guide. The actor then re-performs each line to match
the wording and lip movements. Actors vary in their ability to achieve sync and to
recapture the emotional tone of their performance.
-is the background sound accompanying a scene, or the ʻnaturalʼ
sound of the actual location. In other words the sound of the wind, birds, traffic,
rain, etc of the location are all ambient sounds.
- Attack refers to, when using a compressor, the time between the signal
reaching the threshold to when the automatic gain reduction takes places. A
short attack produces a rapid compressed sound; a long attack creates a more
relaxed sound. Attack refers to how hard or how fast the sound ʻhitsʼ when it first
becomes heard. Attack can be hard or soft.
- is the rate of reduction of the audio signal generated from the peak level
to sustain level. Decay is the fade out of the reverberation of a sound. In other
words, the decay refers to how the sound fades away in terms of a quick decay,
- is the reproduction of everyday sounds for use in filmmaking. These
reproduced sounds can be anything from the swishing of clothing and footsteps
to squeaky doors and breaking glass. The best Foley art is so well integrated into
a film that it goes unnoticed by the audience. It helps to create a sense of reality
within a scene. Without these crucial background noises, movies feel unnaturally
quiet and uncomfortable.
Foley artists look to recreate the realistic ambient sounds that the film portrays.
The props and sets of a film do not react the same way acoustically as their real
life counterparts. Foley sounds are used to enhance the auditory experience of
the movie. Foley can also be used to cover up unwanted sounds captured on the
set of a movie during filming that might take away from the scene at hand, such
as overflying airplanes or passing traffic.
are a type of transducer - a device that converts energy from
one form to another. Microphones convert acoustical energy (sound waves) into
electrical energy (the audio signal).
Different types of microphone have different ways of converting energy but they
all share one thing in common: The diaphragm. This is a thin piece of material
(such as paper, plastic or aluminum), which vibrates when it is struck by sound
waves. Types of microphones: lavaliere, dynamic, condenser, and
-is a means of distributing a DC current (electricity) through
audio cables to provide power for microphones and other equipment.
The supplied voltage is usually between 12 and 48 Volts, with 48V being the
most common. Individual microphones draw as much current from this voltage as
they need. Many Video and film cameras have a phantom power source so the
user can plug-in microphones directly and utilize the typical shotgun condenser
mics used for film production.
- is a locationʼs "aural fingerprint" - nonspecific sounds, similar to the
ambient sound of a location. Each room has a distinct presence of subtle sounds
created by the movement of air particles in a particular volume. A microphone
placed in two different empty rooms will produce different room tone for each.
Room tone is recorded during 'production sound recording'. Room tone is used
to match the production sound track so that it may be intercut with the track and
provide a continuous-sounding background. Room tone may smooth out edit
points and give a feeling of life in a sound-deadened studio. The soundtrack
"going dead" or totally silent, would be perceived by the audience not as silence
but as a failure of the sound system.
- Once a sound has reached its peak, the length of time that the sound
will sustain is dependent upon the energy from the source vibrations. When the
source sound stops, the sound will began to decay
- Audio sweetening is a "catchall" phrase for fine-tuning sound in
postproduction. Sweeten/sweetener refer to subtly mixing an additional sound to
a pre existing sound to "sweeten" the pre-existing sound. Sweetening can also
refer to the final EQ and ʻmixingʼ of the various soundtrack(s) in the film.
- is a design and quality control system for the playback environment in a
theatre. First the aspiring theatre must meet certain acoustic criteria:
• Low background noise, (no loud air conditioners or projectors)
• Good isolation (so the lucky patron doesn't get to hear the gunfight in the
theatre next door)
• Specific reverberant characteristics based on the volume of each individual
• The theatre can't have any nasty slap echoes or reflections.
When an individual theatre meets these standards, it means that.
• The dialogue will be more intelligible,
• The high frequencies will reproduce clearly,
• The bass will not build up excessively within the room, etc.
A sound effect for the murmur of a crowd in the background. Walla is
often used as subliminal aural communication and sets a mood or a tone.
The word walla was created in the old radio days when they needed the sound of
a crowd in the background. They found if several people simply repeated "walla,
walla, walla, walla" it sounded like people talking. The audience did not really
hear the words, just the buzz of voices.
Cinematic dialogue is oral speech between characters. This
distinguishes dialogue from other types of cinematic language such as voice-over
narration, internal monologue, or documentary interviews, which have different
(also known as off-camera or off-stage commentary) is a
production technique where a voice is used in a radio, television, film, theatre, or
other presentation. The voice-over may be spoken by someone who appears
elsewhere in the production or by a specialist voice actor. Voice-overs are often
used to create the effect of storytelling by a character/omniscient narrator.
Sometimes, voice-over can be used to aid continuity in edited versions of films, in
order for the audience to gain a better understanding of what has gone on
or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or
sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of films, television
shows, live performance, animation, video games, music, or other media. In
motion picture and television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and
presented to make a specific storytelling or creative point without the use of
dialogue or music.
Ambient sound - room tone
- is an art form whose medium is sound. Common elements of music are
pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts
tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and
texture. Music genres include: Orchestral, Rock-n-roll, Country, Hip hop,
Electronica, Classical, Dramatic, Jazz, R&B, etc.
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