Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Cardiovascular Disease
Terms in this set (156)
What are lipids?
a class of organic compounds which are actually or potentially esters of fatty acids
Lipids are soluble in? Insoluble in?
organic solvents, water
Why are lipids insoluble in water?
they are very hydrophobic
What are the major lipids?
cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids
What are the five classifications of lipids?
sterols, fatty acids, glycerides, sphingosines, terpenes
What lipids fall under the classification of sterols?
cholesterol, steroid hormones, bile acids, vitamin D
What lipids fall under the classification of fatty acids?
long, medium, small (chains), prostaglandins
What lipids fall under the classification of glycerides?
mono, di, tri (glycerides), phosphoglycerides
What lipids fall under the classification of sphingosines?
What lipids fall under the classification of terpenes?
Vitamin E, Vitamin A, Vitamin K
True or False: Vitamins cannot be fats.
What is needed to absorb fats made from cholesterol?
What are prostaglandins?
modified fatty acids which have contraction abilities (specific contraction function depends on location)
How many carbons constitute a short chain fatty acid?
How many carbons constitute a medium chain fatty acid?
How many carbons constitute a long chain fatty acid?
Cholesterol is found exclusively in?
What is the primary sterol derivative of humans and animals?
What is the base of all cholesterol derivatives?
a cholesterol ester
What type of cholesterol is ingested?
What type of cholesterol is not absorbed?
Where is esterified cholesterol converted into unesterified?
What enzyme converts esterified cholesterol into unesterified?
In the liver acetate is converted into?
What forms a micelle?
lipid derivatives, bile acids
What forms a chylomicron?
What are lipid derivatives composed of?
unesterified cholesterol, fatty acids, glycerol, monoglycerol phosphate (etc.)
What is the major source of cholesterol?
What is the source of exogenous cholesterol?
is absorbed in diet, bile, intestinal secretions, and cells
What is the source of endogenous cholesterol?
is produced by the liver and is made from simpler molecules, particularly acetate (or acetic acid)
What are the two pathways for esterified cholesterol?
recycled into chylomicron or combine with bile acids to aid in lipid absorption
Diets high in plants are thought to block absorption of?
An increase in cholesterol will lead to an increase in? And ultimately?
bile acids, increase in fat absorption
An increase in bile acid production can lead to?
formation of bile stones (lithogenic bile)
What type of fatty acid contains no double bonds?
What type of fatty acid contains double bonds?
Which fatty acid is healthier?
Why are unsaturated fatty acids considered healthier?
they can act as H+ scavengers thus removing waste
What is the best source of unsaturated fatty acids?
fish, olive oil
Fatty acids which contain one double bond are called?
monounsaturated fatty acids
Fatty acid which contain more than one double bond are called?
polyunsaturated fatty acids
Why can't phospholipids be triglycerides?
they contain 1-2 phosphate groups
True or False: Triglycerides are absorbed.
Phosphatidic acid is a phosphodiglyceride with what added to the phosphate group?
Phosphatidylethanolamine is a phosphodigylceride with what added to the phosphate group?
Phosphatidylcholine is a phosphoglyceride with what added to the phosphate group?
Phosphatidylcholine is also known as?
Phosphatidylserine is a phosphoglyceride with what added to the phosphate group?
Phosphatidylinositol is a phosphoglyceride with what added to the phosphate group?
six carbon ring with OH on 5 of 6 carbons
Which phosphoglyceride derivatives are cephalins?
Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol
Most cell receptors are?
Glycosphingolipds are composed of?
sphingosine, fatty acid, CH2O
Terpenes are composed of?
polymers of isoprene
Prostaglandins in the uterus cause?
Prostaglandins in the large intestines causes?
increased bowel movements
Prostaglandins in the blood vessel walls aid in?
Prostaglandins in platelets aid in?
Prostaglandins in the stomach aid in?
How are lipids transported?
through micellar structures called lipoproteins
What causes fat to bind to tissues less?
increase in protein
What are the five classifications of lipoproteins?
chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL
Apolipoprotein is composed of?
What is the order of separation of lipoproteins in gel electrophoresis?
(1st, Cathode) chylomicron, LDL, VLDL, (4th, Anode) HDL
In what specimens is it possible to not see a chylomicron band?
The thickness of each lipoprotein band in gel electrophoresis denotes?
the amount of that particular lipoprotein in the blood
Triglycerides found in chylomicrons are primarily from?
Triglycerides found in VLDL are primarily from?
What is the name of the band which contains HDL?
What is the name of the band which contains LDL?
What is the name of the band which contains VLDL?
What is the name of the band which contains chylomicrons?
Chylomicrons are composed mainly of?
VLDL is composed mainly of?
LDL is composed mainly of?
HDL is composed mainly of?
Why is LDL is considered bad?
it contains a lot of cholesterol
Why is HDL is considered good?
it contains a lot of apolipoprotein
Why is IDL usually not seen in a gel?
it is unstable and is generally decomposed into LDL
How many major categories of apolipoproteins are there?
What is the major type of apolipoprotein found in chylomicrons?
What is the function of apolipoproteins?
to help establish and moderate levels of other lipoproteins
What are the four pathways of lipoprotein metabolism?
lipid absorption, exogenous, endogenous, reverse cholesterol
The exogenous pathway of lipoprotein metabolism involves?
the metabolism of chylomicrons
Function of chylomicrons?
transport dietary (exogenous) triglycerides from the intestine to hepatic or peripheral cells (where they are stored or used for energy)
The endogenous pathway of lipoprotein metabolism involves?
the metabolism of VLDL to LDL
Which lipoprotein is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease?
Which lipoprotein is the major transporter and source of cholesterol?
Where does VLDL originate from?
liver (remnants of chylomicron and endogenous triglycerides)
Which lipoprotein provides protection agains coronary heart disease?
Which lipoprotein is the smallest and most dense?
HDL is secreted from?
liver and intestinal mucosal cells
Which lipoprotein can act as a scavenger to clear LDL and fat?
Which lipoprotein is the largest and least dense?
Which test is the most often ordered for hyperlipidemia?
Type 1 hyperlipoproteinemia is also known as?
Type 2 hyperlipoproteinemia is also known as?
familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)
Type 3 hyperlipoproteinemia is also known as?
Type 4 hyperlipoproteinemia is also known as?
Type 5 hyperlipoproteinemia is also known as?
combo of 1 and 4
Hypolipoproteinemia is related to?
Familial hyperalphalipoproteinema is related to?
high HDL and life expectantcy
Which type of hyperlipoproteinemia is not often seen?
type 3 (Dys-B-Lipoproteinemia)
Type 1 hyperlipoproteinemia is related to?
exogenous triglycerides (chylomicrons)
Type 3 hyperlipoproteinemia is related to?
Type 4 hyperlipoproteinemia is related to?
endogenous triglycerides (liver)
Type 2 hyperlipoproteinemia is related to?
Symptoms of hyperchylomicronemia include?
abdominal pain, spleenomegaly, hepatomegaly
How does pancreatitis affect triglyceride levels?
increase due to decrease in lipase or Apo C
Kidney problems can cause?
hyperchylomicronemia (type 1)
An increase in what band indicates hyperchylomicronemia?
What band is elevated in familial hypercholesterolemia type 2a?
What band is elevated in familial hypercholesterolemia type 2b?
pre beta, beta
Which type of hypercholesterolemia is easier to diagnose?
What band elevated in Dys-B-Lipoprotenemia is significant and why?
IDL because it usually isn't seen
What band is elevated in hypertriglyceridemia?
What band is not elevated in hypertriglyceridemia which is important in diagnosis?
Hypertriglyceridemia can be attributed to?
liver issues related to diet or drugs
What bands are elevated in type 5 hyperlipoproteinemia?
pre beta, chylo
What is the primary cause of type 5 hyperlipoproteinemia?
lipase is not working correctly
What band is elevated in familial hyperalphalipoproteinemia?
What are the primary causes of familial hyperalphalipoproteinemia?
genetics, estrogen therapy
Hyperthyroidism is associated with?
Hypothyroidism is associated with what type of hyperlipoproteinemia?
hypertriglyceridemia (type 4)
Low estrogen levels are associated with what type of hyperlipoproteinemia?
hypertriglyceridemia (type 4)
How is VLDL calculated?
When does VLDL = TG/5?
if measured triglycerides are below 400 mg/dL
What is the percent difference in lipid testing on fasting vs non-fasting specimens?
True or False: A non-fasting specimen for lipids should be rejected.
What additives have no effect on HDL testing?
Why is the additive NaF problematic in lipid analysis?
NaF will inhibit enzymes and lipid testing uses enzymatic reactions
What other divalents/polyvlents besides Zn and heparin will affect LDL and VLDL testing?
calcium, Mg, polyethylene glycol, dextrane
If colormetric methods are used for lipid testing what type of specimens might pose to be problematic?
jaundice, lipemic, hemolyzed
How might bacteria alter lipid testing?
false decrease results
What reaction involves the chemical analysis of cholesterol?
Liberman Burchard Reaction
The enzymatic analysis of cholesterol can involve what two enzymes?
cholesterol esterase, cholesterol oxidase
What reaction involves the chemical analysis of triglycerides?
What mechanism is used in the Hantzch-Condensation reaction?
saponification (using KOH)
What substances can interfere with cholesterol oxidase testing methodology?
bilirubin, ascorbic acid, hemoglobin
What is the reference value for cholesterol?
Fasting also excludes the ingestion of what which can interfere with testing methodology?
What is the reference value for triglycerides?
What range is considered borderline high for triglycerides?
What range is considered high for trigylcerides?
What range is considered very high for triglycerides?
When the triglyceride level is high what appearance does the plasma take on?
turbid or milky (lipemic)
What is done to specimens considered lipemic before testing?
they are centrifuged in order to precipitate out complexes of fat (not HDL, LDL, etc...)
What is the reference value for HDL-C?
What range is considered a grey area for HDL-C?
What is range for HDL is considered high risk for CAD?
What is the Friedewald formula?
LDL = total cholesterol - HDL + VLDL
When is the Friedewald formula not valid?
triglyceride levels over 400 mg/dL
What is the reference value of LDL?
What range LDL is considered borderline high risk of CAD?
What range LDL is considered high risk for CAD?
What is metabolic syndrome?
a group of interrelated metabolic risk factors that appear to promote the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
What are the most common risk factors in metabolic syndrome?
low HDL, high LDL
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