Chapter 2 Chemistry for Biology
Terms in this set (76)
anything that has mass and occupies space
simplest form of matter
simplest form of an element
positive charged subatomic particles
subatomic particles with no charge
negative charged particles, located in regions or clouds outside the nucleus
State changes like ice melting or liquid boiling are examples of a
bond with sharing electrons
bond with transfering electrons
chemical reactions within a living organism
Wood rotting, food digestion, gas forming are all examples of a ________ because new compounds form
Atoms of the same element with different neutrons
Atoms that bond together by sharing electrons
Weak acids or bases in living things that help maintain homeostasis when pH changes.
Solute evenly distributed in a solvent
A scale that measures the number of hydrogen ions in a solution
pH between 1-6.9 is considered an _____
pH between 7.1 to 14 is considered a _____
Organic Compounds made of C,H,O in a 1:2:1 ratio.
Simple sugars, starch, sucrose, fructose, glycogen, cellulose are examples of
Composed of much more C and H atoms than O atoms. Insoluble in water example: waxes, fat, oil
Lipids with all single bonds and completely full of H atoms
Lipids with double or triple bonds with less H atoms
Contains C, H, O and N and sometimes S.
Molecules that react inside an enzyme causing a chemical change
contains C,H,O, N, and P. and is made up of chains of nucleotides
Subunits of nucleic acids made of a sugar, base and phosphate
Examples DNA and RNA
Process that changes one set of substances into something new by forming bonds
Substance that enter into a chemical reaction
Energy needed for a reaction to start
Reaction that absorbes energy
Reaction that releases energy
When compounds have slight negative and positive charges on areas of the atoms which causes hydrogen bonds
Bonds between hydrogen atom of one water molecule and the oxygen atom of another water molecule
Attraction between molecules of the same substance. Creates water "skin" surface tension and circular shape of water droplets
Attraction between molecules of different substances. Ex. Water clinging to sides of glass
Ability of water to regulate environmental conditions. Water can absorb and relase a lot of heat without changing temperature drastically
Substance being dissolved
Substance doing the dissolving
Van der Waals Forces
Very week electrostatic attractions between molecules. (Allows gecko to climb walls)
Temperature, pH, regulatory molecules
Three factors that regulate enzyme activity are _______________
What do you call compounds that are formed by chemical reactions?
A solution with a pH of 2 has (more or less) hydrogen ions than a solution with a pH of 5.
Bases have a pH of 7.1-14 and have more _________ ions than acids.
Metal and nonmetals transfer electrons forming ________ bonds
Compounds form to seek ___________.
Atoms tend to bond together to achieve ____ OUTER-MOST electrons.
Carbon has 4 OUTER-MOST electrons therefore needs _____ more for stability.
Atoms with nuclei that decay and breakdown and often used to date rocks and in medicine.
What are the subunits of proteins called?
A carbohydrate that is stored as energy in the liver of animals
A carbohydrate that forms cell walls of plants is called
Atoms of two or more elements chemically combined together is called
structural, enzymatic and storage
Three functions of organic compounds are
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins
The four major macromolecules are called
nucleic acid with a double strand of nucleotides
nucleic acid with a single strand of nucleotides
A compound that speeds up a chemical reaction is called _________________
A uniquely shaped protein that functions as a catalyst is an
Plants store excess carbohydrates in the form of
___________________ bond together as they share electrons forming covalent bonds
Atoms of the same element have _____________ numbers of electrons and protons thus making them neutral.
H --- O --- H
An example of a structural formula of water showing that the electrons are being SHARED not transferred.
_____________________ are atoms that have a charge on them because they have either lost or gained electrons. Na+ lost an electron and Cl- has gained an electron.
protons, neutrons and electrons
The three subatomic particles of an atom are
The number of protons is termed
protons + neutrons = the
A mixture of living cells is considered a
In a chemical reaction, molecules are ____________ to form new substances with very different physical and chemical properties
The difference between carbon-13 and carbon-14 is the number of
fight disease, control the rate of reactions and move substances in and out of the cell
Proteins can function in what three ways?
During our Lab Enzyme simulation, your hand represented the ________.
During our Lab Enzyme simulation, your fingers represented the ________.
During our Lab Enzyme simulation, the toothpicks represented the ______ undergoing a reaction.
During our Lab Enzyme simulation, most results showed that ______________ could have an affect on whether an enzyme will work properly.