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The raniassiants test
Terms in this set (74)
literally means "rebirth"
that something has been born once already and then at some point died
What does the term "Renaissance" assume?
Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome
Historically speaking, what was the first "birth"?
the Middle Ages, or "Dark Ages"
Historically speaking, what was the "death" that took place?
1) by finding and studying primary sources
2) by learning the ancient languages so those primary sources could be read
3) by studying Greek and Roman culture
4) by studying the arts from Greek and Roman society
How exactly would European society "go back" to Greece and Rome?
1) physical ailments like the Bubonic Plague
2) political corruption that had run rampant
3) the terrible abuses of the RCC
As the Renaissance began, what did Europe need to recover from?
not by simply copying the ancient cultures, but by learning from them and then progressing in new ways
How exactly will Europe progress or move forward?
during the Middle Ages, an individual was only viewed in light of their larger group; during the Renaissance, individuals will be viewed as independent persons capable of creating and achieving things on their own
How was the individual person viewed during the Renaissance, as opposed to during the Middle Ages?
because after the Crusades the area of Northern Italy was central to European trade on land
Why did cities form and grow in Northern Italy specifically?
it becomes a hub of ideas
What usually happens when a city is formed and grows?
Italy was rich in monuments and writings from the ancient Roman civilization
What about Italy's history helped it to become a center for Renaissance ideas?
they spent some of their riches to fund the arts
How did rich merchants in Italian cities encourage cultural growth?
- it is the focus on human achievement in the arts
- it is different from medieval thinking because people in the Middle Ages only viewed art as a way to learn about and draw closer to God, whereas people during the Renaissance viewed it as a way to learn about humanity
What is Renaissance humanism and how did it differ from the way people thought during the Middle Ages?
- it is the belief that a person can be religious AND enjoy the comforts of the world
- it is different from medieval thinking because many people in the Middle Ages thought that being close to God and enjoying the comforts of the world were in opposition to each other
What is Renaissance secularism and how did it differ from the way people thought during the Middle Ages?
a person who is educated and equipped in virtually every academic area, including mathematics, literature, drama, writing, etc.
What is a Renaissance Man?
1) competition between city-states fueled progress
2) citizens were more loyal to their city-state than they would be to a nation
3) good leaders were able to spur growth
What were the pros of the city-state setup in Renaissance Italy?
1) lack of national unity leads to invasions from outsiders
2) bad leaders would make life awful
What were the cons of the city-state setup in Renaissance Italy?
1) you had to protect yourself from other rich people
2) you had to keep poor people happy so they didn't revolt
3) you had to protect your city-state from outsiders
How was being a political leader a balancing act in a city-state?
the most influential political thinker of the Renaissance
1) it is better to be feared than to be loved
2) the good of the state is more important than the good of individual people
What two ideas did Machiavelli come up with regarding political leadership?
an industry in which people are running family businesses out of their homes
Because of cottage industry, what becomes the most important element of Renaissance life?
based on how it would help family businesses
During the Renaissance, marriage decisions were made based on what?
- girls were married younger to a successful businessman
- boys were married older because they had to establish their business first
How was life different for girls and boys during the Renaissance?
a gift given by a bride's father to her potential husband
- there were fewer farmers than in the Middle Ages
- nature was the farmer's greatest enemy
- farm families experienced sudden and frequent death
What was life like for farmers during the Renaissance?
1) they couldn't trade on land
2) they couldn't farm on land
3) sea trade was expensive
4) Sparta had freed their slaves
5) they had to raise taxes to pay for sea trade
6) people were grumpy about the raised taxes and became less loyal
7) Persia threatened to help Sparta defeat them
Why was Athens in a very bad situation heading into the last phase of the Peloponnesian War?
the mountains led to the following:
1) no trade/travel/communication
2) the formation of city-states
3) no national loyalty or patriotism
How did geography shape life in Greece?
democracy, "artsy fartsy," world's best navy
What were the characteristics of Athenian society?
1) they didn't want to get the plague themselves
2) they were afraid the plague was an action of the gods
3) they wanted to check on their crops
4) they wanted to check on their slaves
Why did Sparta run away after Athens was struck with a plague during the Peloponnesian War?
great series of wars between Athens and Sparta
formed by Greek city-states to fight off the invading Persians
Battle of Mantinea
largest land battle of the Peloponnesian War
the island west of Greece that Athens aimed to take during the Peloponnesian War
an important gateway for trade that Athens and Sparta fought over in the last phase of the Peloponnesian War
oligarchy, militaristic, world's best infantry
What were the characteristics of Spartan society?
when two small countries fight but are supported by two rival superpowers
Alcibiades was angry at Athens and told Sparta their plan; meanwhile, Athens arrived in Sicily but took their time to conquer it, which gave Sparta enough time to get there and kick their butts. When Athens wanted to retreat, a lunar eclipse made them believe the gods would punish them if they left, so they stayed and were slaughtered by Sparta
What led to the defeat of Athens on the island of Sicily?
form of government in which one person rules a nation
form of government in which one person rules a collection of nations
form of government in which the people vote directly on issues
Form of government in which the people elect representatives to vote directly on issues
form of government in which one person rules without any rule of law
1) they are able to vote
2) they can participate in government by running for office or joining discussions
How are people given power in democracies and republics?
1) ask where the power is
2) ask what the role of the law is
3) never trust what a government says about itself
What should you do to figure out how a government actually works?
to explain reality
What is the purpose of legends?
1) mountains protected it from invaders
2) a river gave them a good water source
3) location in the center of the Italian Peninsula made governance and expansion easier
4) location in the center of the Mediterranean Sea allowed for great trade
How did Rome's geography allow it to grow early on?
leniency led to expansion
How was the Roman Republic able to expand to effectively?
How did Julius Caesar rise to power?
1) he and his two friends informally controlled Rome via a triumvirate
2) he conquered Gaul
3) he gained the loyalty of many military members
4) Roman leaders told him to come home and disband
5) he refused, instead "crossing the Rubicon" to take power in Rome
6) he then systematically dominated all of Rome's territory
7) he was appointed dictator in 46 BC and then dictator for life in 44 BC
if people are happy they don't care about principles of governance
What does history teach us about "the way it works" when people are ruled?
the Roman government overspent its budget, which forced them to raise taxes and hindered their ability to pay for infrastructure and military expenses; both the taxes and inability to pay for these things made the Roman people very grumpy
How did the Roman Empire crumble internally?
era of world history that takes place after Ancient History but before Modern History
How were the Middle Ages decentralized?
they had no national government, which led to the following three things:
1) they had no national law to establish justice
2) they had no national military to hold people accountable and protect them
3) they had no one to collect taxes to pay for infrastructure
What was the main purpose of castles in the Middle Ages?
to protect or defend
What features of castles enabled them to fulfill their purpose?
1) they were built up on hills
2) they were built into bodies of water or had water surrounding them
3) they were built strong (no windows, high walls, thick stones, etc.)
code of chivalry
governed the life of a knight
the ancient city that was fought over during the Crusades and is still fought over today
The Big Three
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
- Jews claimed it because God gave it to them and Solomon's Temple was built there
- Christians claimed it because Jesus Christ was crucified, buried, and rose from the dead there
- Muslims claimed it because the prophet Muhammad ascended to heaven from there
Why did each of the Big Three lay claim to Jerusalem?
a "holy war" to take over the city of Jerusalem
when two or more cultures clash, mix, and have a long-term impact on one another
the common language of a society
any teaching that goes against the generally held beliefs of the RCC, viewed as a disease
virtually everything: religion, politics, economics, etc.
The RCC eventually had power over what elements of society?
a piece of paper that would grant people pardon for their sins and less time in purgatory
in Catholic teaching, it's the "in between" place in the afterlife where most people go to cleanse their souls from sin
a devout monk who began to question the teachings of the RCC
by faith; this means they believe that Jesus Christ died for their sins and rose from the dead
According to Luther, how does a person get "saved"?
y believing in Jesus AND doing good works like going to church, getting baptized, confessing sins, etc.
According to the RCC, how does a person get "saved"?
Luther posting his 95 Theses to a church door for public discussion
What was the "spark" that will ignite the Reformation?
The 95 Theses
Luther's written list of problems with the RCC
"Here I stand."
a summary of Luther's statement to the RCC, in which he refuses to recant of his newfound beliefs
translated the Bible into German
What did Luther do while he was in hiding?
1) Martin Luther has taught us that truth exists and it's worth fighting for
2) the view that anyone can read and understand the Bible has led to countless different interpretations and 10,000+ Protestant churches
What were the long-term consequences of the Reformation?
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