42 terms

Intro to Pharmacology

study of drugs and their actions on living organisms
Food and drug adminstration (FDA),
Who is responsible for approving new drugs and monitoring drugs for adverse or toxic effects
drug development
takes 7 to 12 years
manufacturer develops a drug that has potential
invitro testings on animal and human cells
live animals
then applies for IND (INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG) status
drug testing phase involes 3 phases
phase 1
last 4 to 6 weeks
done on 20-100 healthy volunteers
phase 11
phase 111
studies focus on dosing and safety
NDA New drug application
this is submitted after phase 1, 11, and 111, are completed and the drug is found to be safe and effective
special FDA programs
Orphan drug program
compassionate access to unapproved drugs
What are the four different drug names?
drug categories
prescription, nonprescription, controlled substance
prescription drugs
federal government has stated they are potentially harmful unless their use is under supervision of a health care professional
know as legend drugs
must be prescribed by a licensed health care provider
the prescription must contain?
name of drug
the dosage
the method and times for administration
signature of a licensed health care provider
non-prescription drugs
are designated by the FDA to be safe if taken as directed
no prescription required
can also be called OTC over-the-counter
controlled substance
are the most carefully monitored of all drugs
high potential for abuse
may cause physical or psychological dependence
physical dependence
a compulsive need to use a substance repeatedly to avoid mild to severe withdrawal symptoms
psychological dependence
a compulsion to use a substance to obtain a pleasurable experience
it is the mind's dependence
controlled substance act of 1970
regulates the manufacture, distribution and dispensing of drugs that have abuse potential
controlled substances act of 1970
classified into shcedules (CI, CII, CIII, CIV, CV)
based on their potential for abuse and physical and psychological dependence
controlled substances scheduled C1
high abuse potential
not accepted in US
Heroin, marijauana, ecstasy, LSD
the prescription for controlled substances must contain?
must be in ink
cannot be filled more than 6 months after the prescription was written
cannot be refilled more than 5 times
controlled substances scheduled C11
high potential for abuse
demerol, methadone, morphine, oxycontin, amphetamines, ritalin
controlled substances scheduled C111
less potential for abuse than C11
potential for moderate abuse
vicodin, Tylenol#3
controlled substances scheduled C1V
less potential for abuse than C111
anxiety meds
controlled substances scheduled CV
limited abuse potential
mainly antitussives and antidiarrheals
urine, sweat, breast milk, breathing, feces
the process of chemical reactions where the liver converts a drug to inacative compounds
Pharmacodynamic phase
the drug's actions and effects within the body
anaphylactic shock
serious allergic drug reaction
requires immediate medical attention
can be fatal if not treated immediately
drug idiosyncrasy
any unusal or abnormal reaction to a drug
drug tolorence
a sign of drug dependency
cumulative drug effect
when the body is unable to metabolize and excrete one dose of a drug before the next is given

can occur in patient with liver or kidney disease
Half Life
the time required for the body to eliminate 50% of the drug in circlulation
takes 5 to 6 half-lives to eliminate the drug completely from the body
drug-food interaction
empty stomach vs full stomach
dairy products
certain fruits and vegies
factors influencing drug response
route of administration
drug-drug ineraction
one drug effecting the potency of another drug
drug-drug ineraction
additive drug reaction
synergistic drug reaction
antagonist drug reaction
antagonist drug reaction
one drug working against another drug or blocking the drugs effectiveness
synergistic drug reaction
two drugs working together in harmony being better then one drug working alone
additive drug reaction
the combined effect of two drugs equals the sum of the effects of each drug given alone
toxic reactions
can be reversible or irriversible depending on the organs involved
Which drugs interact or interferes with the action of another drug?
oral anticoagulants
oral hypoglycemics
cardiac glycosides
a genetically caused abnormal response to normal doses of a drug
due to inherited traits
drug reaction
adverse reaction-undesirable drug effect
allergic reaction-a drug reaction that occurs because the individual's immune system views the drug as a foreign substance