The musculoskeletal system consists of?
Bones, joints, bursae, muscles, tendons and ligaments. It allows for physical movement.
What are the deformities of the spine?
Lordosis - abnormal inward curvature
( swayback )
Kyphosis - abnormal outward curvature
( humpback )
Scoliosis - abnormal sideways curvature
( s - shaped )
Kyphoscoliosis - affects cardiac and pulmonary function.
Describe deformitites of the spine.
Etiology - congenital defects, poor posture, idiopathic, and different leg lengths.
Treatment - PT, exercise, back braces, surgery, analgesics.
What is another name for herniated intervertebral disc?
Slipped disc or ruptured disc. Caused by pressure on spinal nerves, resulting in pain and disability. Most common site 4th & 5th lumbar and 5th lumbar and 1st sacral.
Describe herniated disc.
Men > Women
Etiology - spinal trauma from a fall, straining, or heavy lifting.
S/S - sciatic nerve pain and parasthesias
( stinger / tingling or abnormal sensation.)
Tx - bed rest, traction, back brace, and surgical removal.
Prognosis - 1 in every 50. ( proper lifting )
Low bone mass ( brittle bone )
Women 50 and older, post menopausal, small frame, caucasian or asian.
S/S - low back pain, loss of height, fractures.
Tx - prevent fractures.
An infection of the bone forming tissue. More common in children.
Etiology - trauma resulting in formation of hematoma and staph infection. Prosthetic hardware, diabetics, dialysis, IV drug users high risk.
Prognosis - poor if becomes chronic.
Describe paget's disease.
High rate of bone turn over, resorbed and replaced to become thicker but softer. More frequent in lower torso in men over 40.
Etiology - unknown
Tx - PT, drug therapy, pain management, surgery.
Describe fractures ( broken bones ).
Closed simple fracture - no external wound.
Open or compound fracture - a portion of the bone protrudes through skin.
Greenstick fracture - bone is partially bent and split, occurs most frequently in children.
Comminuted fracture - splintered into pieces and embedded in surrounding tissue.
Impacted fracture - one of the broken ends is forced into the interior of the other.
Incomplete partial fracture - stress fracture and does not include the whole bone.
What is the etiology of fractures?
Trauma, and is diagnosed by xrays.
Tx - immobilization, open reduction, closed reduction.
Complications - embolus ( clot ), infection.
Wear and tear of the joints as we age. Most common type of arthritis. Knee and hip joints most commonly affected as well as gender.
Tx - pain relief, injections of joint fluid, PT, hip or knee replacement. There is no known prevention or cure.
Describe rhuematoid arthritis.
Chronic inflammatory disease affecting the synovial membranes of muscle joints.
Characterized by spontaneous remissions and unpredictable exacerbations.
Etiology - unknown but thought to be auto-immune disease.
Tx - Reduced inflammation and pain, Preserve joint function, prevent deformity, life long treatment. Major changes in lifestyle.
Chronic disorder of uric acid metabolism
( kidneys ).
S/S - excruciating pain, usually in the joints of the big toe. At one time, was a disabling disease.
Describe sprains and strains.
Sprains - tearing or stretching of a ligament.
Strains - tearing or stretching of a tendon or muscle. Both healing in 2 - 4 weeks. Elevate and rest.
What is bursitis?
Inflammation of bursa that allows movement of tendons and muscles over boney prominences.
( Shoulder, arm, elbow, knee )
Caused by excessive frictional force, RA, gout, and infection.
What is tendonitis?
Inflammation of the tendon / muscle attachments to the bone. ( shoulder, rotator cuff, hip, achilles tendon, hamstring.) Caused by overuse and pain often interferes with sleep.
Describe carpal tunnel syndrome.
It affects the median nerve in the wrist caused by repetitive motion.
Tx - Rest, splint, or surgical decompression.
Describe myasthenia gravis.
Chronic, progressive neuromuscular disease.
More common in women 20 - 40.
Etiology - unknown
S/S - sudden drooping eyelids and double vision ( cranial nerves ), muscle weakness, late day or after exercise, respiratory muscle weakness.
Tx - symptomatic and supportive. should be taught to make the most of the energy peaks throughout the day.
Describe systemic lupus erythematosus. ( SLE )
Chronic inflammatory connective tissue disorder. Auto immune disease that damages cells and tissues. Affects women 8x more than men.
Etiology - unknown
S/S - butterfly rash on face, joint and muscle pain, photo sensitivity, joint deformities.
Tx - Anti-inflammatory and corticosteroids but no cure.
Describe duchenne's muscular dystrophy.
a congenital disorder characterized by progressive, bilateral wasting of skeletal muscles ( no neural or sensory deffects ) occurs during early childhood and death within 10 - 15 years.
S/S - 1st affects leg and pelvic muscles
( waddling gait, toe walking and lordosis. )
Muscle deteriation is progressive and contractures develop.
Tx - orthopedic appliances, PT, exercises, surgery.
Prognosis - poor, wheel chair bound by age 9 - 12 with death occurring from cardiac or respiratory complications.
What is the neoplasms of the MS system?
Osteogenic sarcoma - primarily affects the long bones and is the most common primary neoplasm of this system.
S/S - bone pain.
Prognosis - poor.