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pH between 0-6.9


pH between 7.1-14

basic or alkaline

pH of 7



substances that release H+ (hydrogen ions) when dissolved in water......

weak acids

pH of 5-6. ex:milk

moderate acid

pH of 3-4 ex:tomato juice

strong acid

pH of 1-2 ex:hydrochloric acid

the more H+ there are

the STRONGER the acid is

characteristics of acids

-tastes sour
-reacts strongly with metal
-can burn your skin

makes litmus papers red



also known as alkalines

releases OH- (hydroxide ions)


examples of bases

soaps, cleaners, detergents

bases turn litmus paper.....


strong bases

pH of 12-13 ex:drano

moderate bases

pH of 10-11 ex:ammonia

weak bases

pH of 8-9 ex:eggs

characteristics of bases

-taste bitter
-feel slippery
-can bun skin


= neutralization

to much acid can

-lead to indegestion aka heartburn
-acid reflux- acid that comes up the esophagus
-ulcers- soars caused by acid eating away at the walls of the stomach

4 elements make up 96% of the human body


trace elements

vital in maintaining healthy cells in organisms
-Mg: magnessium


smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Building blocks of all matter


two or more elements chemically combined. very different from those of the elements from those of the elements that makeup the compound


.substances that start the reaction
.placed on the left side of the equation


.substances that are formed by the reaction
.placed on the right side of the equation


combination of substances where the components keep their own properties
ex. sand and sugar


combination where one or more substances(solutes) are distrubuted evenly in another substance (solvent). Solvent is always a liquid.
ex. sugar in a powdered drink

inorganic compounds

compounds that do not contain both carbon and hydrogen

organic compunds

compounds that contain both carbon and hydrogen

main source of energy


starch and sugars

examples of carbohydrates

carbs have a what to what ratio

2:1 ratio between H:O

carbohydrates are composed of

Carbon Oxygen and Hydrogen


simplest carbohydrate or simplest sugars
ex:glucose (C6H12O6)


two simple sugars combine to form one


long chains of monosaccharides bonded together.
ex:starch and cellulose(cell wall of plants)


includes fats and oils it= stored energy,

lipids are composed of

carbon hydrogen and oxygen NO 2:1 RATIO H:O


lipids that are solid at room temperature


lipids that are liquid at room temperature

building blocks of lipids

fatty acids, and glycerol

Proteins are made of

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

building blocks of proteins

amino acids


2 amino acids bonded together


many amino acids bonded together

how many amino acids are in living things

20 ex: enzymes, hormones, hemoglobin, antibodies.

used to rebuild muscle tissue and cell repair


Enzymes (end in ase)

laarge complex protein molecules that control the reate of chemical reactions


something that speeds up or slows down a chemical reaction

in cellular chemical reactions there is a ( ) catalyst


influenced by temperature, concentration of enzyme and substance, and pH


Nucleic acids

large molecules made up of C,H,O,N,P
(carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and )


building block of nuceic acids.

nucleic acids are composed of

5 carbon sugar, nitrogen base, and a phosphate group.

how many types of nucleic acids are there?



makes up groups and involved in heredity


involved in the making of proteins

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