How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

58 terms

Honors Biology Chapter 6: chemistry of life

STUDY
PLAY
pH between 0-6.9
acidic
pH between 7.1-14
basic or alkaline
pH of 7
Nuetral
acids
substances that release H+ (hydrogen ions) when dissolved in water......
weak acids
pH of 5-6. ex:milk
moderate acid
pH of 3-4 ex:tomato juice
strong acid
pH of 1-2 ex:hydrochloric acid
the more H+ there are
the STRONGER the acid is
characteristics of acids
-tastes sour
-reacts strongly with metal
-can burn your skin
makes litmus papers red
Acids
bases
also known as alkalines
releases OH- (hydroxide ions)
bases
examples of bases
soaps, cleaners, detergents
bases turn litmus paper.....
blue
strong bases
pH of 12-13 ex:drano
moderate bases
pH of 10-11 ex:ammonia
weak bases
pH of 8-9 ex:eggs
characteristics of bases
-taste bitter
-feel slippery
-can bun skin
acids+bases
= neutralization
to much acid can
-lead to indegestion aka heartburn
-acid reflux- acid that comes up the esophagus
-ulcers- soars caused by acid eating away at the walls of the stomach
4 elements make up 96% of the human body
-carbon
-oxygen
-hydrogen
-nitrogen
trace elements
vital in maintaining healthy cells in organisms
-Mg: magnessium
atom
smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Building blocks of all matter
compounds
two or more elements chemically combined. very different from those of the elements from those of the elements that makeup the compound
reactants
.substances that start the reaction
.placed on the left side of the equation
products
.substances that are formed by the reaction
.placed on the right side of the equation
mixture
combination of substances where the components keep their own properties
ex. sand and sugar
solutions
combination where one or more substances(solutes) are distrubuted evenly in another substance (solvent). Solvent is always a liquid.
ex. sugar in a powdered drink
inorganic compounds
compounds that do not contain both carbon and hydrogen
organic compunds
compounds that contain both carbon and hydrogen
main source of energy
carbohydrates
starch and sugars
examples of carbohydrates
carbs have a what to what ratio
2:1 ratio between H:O
carbohydrates are composed of
Carbon Oxygen and Hydrogen
monosaccharides
simplest carbohydrate or simplest sugars
ex:glucose (C6H12O6)
disaccharides
two simple sugars combine to form one
ex:maltose(C12H12O11)
polysaccharides
long chains of monosaccharides bonded together.
ex:starch and cellulose(cell wall of plants)
Lipids
includes fats and oils it= stored energy,
lipids are composed of
carbon hydrogen and oxygen NO 2:1 RATIO H:O
fats
lipids that are solid at room temperature
oils
lipids that are liquid at room temperature
building blocks of lipids
fatty acids, and glycerol
Proteins are made of
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
building blocks of proteins
amino acids
dipeptide
2 amino acids bonded together
polypeptide
many amino acids bonded together
how many amino acids are in living things
20 ex: enzymes, hormones, hemoglobin, antibodies.
used to rebuild muscle tissue and cell repair
proteins
Enzymes (end in ase)
laarge complex protein molecules that control the reate of chemical reactions
catalyst
something that speeds up or slows down a chemical reaction
in cellular chemical reactions there is a ( ) catalyst
(organic)
influenced by temperature, concentration of enzyme and substance, and pH
enzymes
Nucleic acids
large molecules made up of C,H,O,N,P
(carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and )
nucleotide
building block of nuceic acids.
nucleic acids are composed of
5 carbon sugar, nitrogen base, and a phosphate group.
how many types of nucleic acids are there?
two
DNA
makes up groups and involved in heredity
RNA
involved in the making of proteins