US History - Semester 2, Unit 2
Terms in this set (79)
List nations of Indochina.
Vietnam, Laos, Cambodja
Why did the United States support France in Indochina?
..to defeat a man America had once supported
Stop the spread of communism; get closer to one of our friends in Europe
Ho Chi Minh
The leader of the Indochinese Communist Party
Group he founded - Indochinese Communist Party
Why we opposed him - Because he was a communist
Eisenhower - likened the countries on the brink of commu-nism to a row of dominoes waiting to fall one after the other.
Dien Bien Phu
France was forced to surrender in May of 1954, when the Vietminh overran the French outpost at Dien Bien Phu, in northwestern Vietnam.
temporarily divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel.
Main parts of the agreement:
The Communists and their leader, Ho Chi Minh, controlled North Vietnam from the capital of Hanoi
The anti-Communist nationalists controlled South Vietnam from the capital and southern port city of Saigon.
US view of elections/why?
An election to unify the country was called for in 1956.
Ngo Dinh Diem
a strong anti-Communist
Ho Chi was redistributing land to peasants and the years of fighting the French and Japanese made him national hero
refused to take part in the countywide election of 1956.
Why JFK supported him?
Kennedy increased financial aid to Diem's teetering regime and sent thousands of military advisers to help train South Vietnamese troops.
What was his fate? US role? Impact?
He was assassinated. Kennedy didn't want to assassinate him. But U.S.-supported military coup toppled Diem's regime.
a communist opposition group in the south - >attacks on Diem'S government assassinating thousands of South Vietnamese government officials.
Ho Chi Minh Trail
Ho Chi Minh supported the group, and in 1959 began supplying arms to the Vietcong via a network of paths along the borders of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
How did each president defend our involvement in Vietnam:
Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon
Eisenhower - to protect our national security
Kennedy - domino effect
Johnson - Not to spread communism/little countries
Nixon - US didn't want to lose the peace.
Johnson in the Vietnam war
President Johnson would escalate (increase) our involvement in Vietnam. He would eventually send an army of over 500,000 troops to Vietnam.
Lyndon Johnson expanded our role in the war
Diems death made things worse.
Johnson felt he needed to look tough in Vietnam
Johnson saw a world-wide impact of Vietnam...
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
Define: Congress gave President Johnson the power to take all necessary actions in SE Asia.
Johnson uses attack on US destroyers to get resolution passed.
Major problem; an alleged second attack we say happened never did happen.
Another problem; we said the ships were innocent and in international waters; they were actually very close to shore of North Vietnam and part of a secret operation.
The falsehoods would come out a decade later; contributed to a lack of belief in government; term is: Credibility Gap.
Operation Rolling Thunder
code name for the first sustained bombing of North
Diem's death made the country more unstable. We gradually became involved.
was the belief that the government was not telling the truth.
Bright Shining Lie
We were supporting a good government.,
Over-optimistic battle reports.,
The inflated body counts.,
We fully understood what what was happening in Vietnam.,
We had the full support of the people of South Vietnam.,
Obstacles our troops faced.
no place for the dead bodies
very difficult to tell the families who died...
they didn't know he land they were fighting at
women used in the army
Strategies of enemy.
Ambushes, kidnappings, booby traps, sniper activity...= unconventional war
hard to encounter as a form of warfare
communist strategy - to win over the people
Impact of war on civilians.
civilians died because they lived on the battlefield
movie about war....Unique war
we must win over the people
the danger of expansion of communism
Reasons the war was unique
there was no battle line in Vietnam
Define Hearts and Minds.
winning the support of the people
Which side did they say would win the war?
If you win the people, you win the war
View of US people toward war early on.
As the infiltration of American ground troops into Vietnam failed to score a quick victory, a mostly supportive (over 50 percent) U. S. population began to question its government's war policy.
=1965 - over 60 Americans supported Vietnam
Define Robert McNamara.
Secretary of Defense for LBJ
he would resign
Define William Westmoreland.
The American commander in South Vietnam, General
Army of the Republic of Vietnam
the army that we fought with, we tried to train them, they were never strong enough to stand on their own
Define-War of Attrition****
plan of wearing the enemy by trading life for life
in their attempt to expose Vietcong tunnels and hideouts, U. S. planes dropped napalm, a gasoline-based bomb that set fire to the jungle.
very controversial...weapon which is very nasty...->people
Define Agent Orange.
They also sprayed Agent Orange, a leaf-killing toxic chemical. The saturation use of these weapons often wounded civilians and left villages and their surroundings in ruins....->trees, leaves, ended up with cancer o many people
Search and Destroy
Main US tactic of finding/killing enemy. Main measure of success was the body count - exaggerated. (Number of enemy killed.)
The power to inflict maximum casualties
US flew 3 million air sorties (missions) during the Vietnam war.
...To begin the war, the US tried to target only military targets. Fought war in a limited fashion; people would later be critical of this.
We had two main goals for the air war in Vietnam:
Bring North Vietnam to the peace table within 6 months. This was a complete failure. We underestimated how much they could take. In fact, the more we bombed, the more they escalated (increased their movement) in the war.
Reduce US casualties
Russian surface - to-air missile; very destructive weapon to our planes - it is a reason we developed stealth and laser guided technology
Jolly Green Giant***
Nickname given to US rescue helicopters
Nickname given to bombs dropped by uS B-52s. This proved to be a very expensive weapon
A 15000 pound bomb used to clear jungles for helicopter landings
Enemy mine which would explode at waist high
Leading the patrol - very dangerous duty.
Cost of firepower:
Very expensive; hard to coordinate; reduced our aid to allies around the world.
Battle of the Ia Drang Valley**
Define this as the first major meeting of the US and North Vietnamese army. This was a rare conventional battle.
. Define Air Cavalry.
Based on helicopter mobility
Why was the Ia Drang Valley a good place to test the concept of air cavalry?
lack of major roads, and even of many jungle paths, in the area made the terrain difficult for conventional infantry to patrol
Describe aerial reconnaissance by fire.
it's like ground reconnaissance in force, the aerial version was designed to fix enemy units by drawing fire - find and fix the enemy in order to mass fires and forces against him
they flew low
What old ambush trick was use by Troop C of the 1st squad, ninth cavalry?
VC trick - they established three nighttime ambushes on the south bank of the Ia Drang
close in air and artillery support
Describe how the battle for LZ X-Ray was won?
What did each side learn from this battle LZ X-Ray?
Nylon rain ponchos - light, not making noise
Radio sets inoperable during heavy rain->radio boots
North Vietnamese - low-flying helicopters - poor targets
get close to the Americans
Age group of New Left**/location
youth - college students
opposed the war..because they were the ones who were fighting
(Students for a Democratic Society)
The group charged that corporations and large government institutions had taken over America. The SDS called for a restoration of "participatory democracy"
Free Speech Movement
gained prominence at the University of California at Berkeley. The FSM grew out of a clash between students and administrators over free speech on campus.
focused its criticism on what it called the American "machine," the nation's faceless and powerful business and government institutions.
...business and government took over America
5 Reasons college students did not like the war.
The most common was the belief that the conflict in Vietnam was basically a civil war and that the U. S. military had no business there.
the oppressive South Vietnamese regime was no better than the Communist regime it was fighting.
the United States could not police the entire globe and that war was draining American strength in other important parts of the world.
Still others saw war simply as morally unjust.
View of Hawks
Feeling just as strongly that America should unleash much of its greater military force to win the war were the hawks.
View of Doves
Those who strongly opposed the war and believed the United States should withdraw were known as doves.
Describe what the polls showed in 1967 showed about:
When body count went up, the war shrunk, when we stopped the infiltration, it went on
70 percent believed that the college students were traders - disloyal...
Elements of Peace Movement-
Pacifists, communists, black militants, civil rights members, students, professors
International view of war
Unpopular; like David vs. Goliath
Why Muhammad Ali resisted draft
Name Johnson called politicians who turned against the war.
Action of Life Magazine
Printed pictures of a week of US dead in Vietnam.
Describe 1968 Chicago Democratic Convention
Violent, out of control; Images helped Richard Nixon win presidency.
Peace with honor
Reason for secret bombing in Cambodia
Reduce protests in America; was unpopular because it seemed we were widening war.
Scene of student protest; 4 students killed by Ohio national guard.
Action of Jane Fonda
Went to Hanoi to denounce US war effort.
Leaked to press; showed US government lied about the war.
Why Nixon wanted agreement before 11/72
Before his re-election.
lead Youth International Party-against war; said protesters would be heroes by year 2000.
List the economic impacts of the war
war caused a rise in inflation and taxes, lower spending on the Great Society.
Explain first television war
Combat footage on evening news was brought directly into homes; were opposite of optimistic reports.
Explain how people avoided the draft
found a friendly doctor for medical exemption, move to a friendlier draft board, move to Canada, join the National Guard, college deferment.
Explain why Vietnam was called a working class war
Almost 80% of the soldiers came from lower economic levels.
What was MLK's view of the war?
Blacks were dying for a country that treated them as second class citizens; disproportionate number of blacks were dying in the war.
Chinese new year holiday=Tet
biggest Communist offensive of the war
secret communist attack...
The Vietcong lost about 32,000 soldiers during the month-long battle, while the American and ARVN forces lost lit -tle more than 3,000.->great victory for the US
56 percent Hawks before->40 and 40 (Hawks and Doves)
a friend and supporter of the president's Vietnam policy.
he became defense
first he supported the war, but then he turned against the war, because he thought it was unwinnable
Johnson's vice president, running for presidency(Johnson resigned)
a loyal party man who had President Johnson's support.
in 1968 at the convention in Chicago, the president was supposed to be elected but Humphrey's nomination had already been determined, a decision that upset many antiwar activists.->10,000 protesters->violent riots->that gave the presidency to the republican Nixon
->in 1968 Nixon won the election
Richard Nixon-define/main campaign theme
campaign - restore law and order
promise to end the war in Vietnam
Define Khe Sanh.
US base near the border of North Vietnam... it was compared to French base Dien Bien Phu
we saved this base by bombing around it
it wasn'T the communist main target, they wanted the cities(=the Vietnam war not only in the jungle but also in cities!!)
Describe tone of press reports.
Negative tone-> helped people to turn against the war
B-52 raids around Khe Sanh to save it.
Why was this event so troubling?
North Vietnam cannot defeat or humiliate the United States. The US can do that
those who did it were described as normal people...how could people like us, average Americans..?
How was this event explained?
they were expecting a battle
it was revenge
they were told that the people of the village were enemies
Free Fire Zone-define/impact here.
An area where you can shoot bombs every night without a problem..."so how can people living in there be worth so much?"
no restrictions at shooting, you can shoot every
How first reported? How was this kept quiet? How finally discovered?
reported as battle
128 enemy killed
US only 1 wounded
kept quiet - covered up by the army, people were told not to talk
finally an US helicopter pilot stopped it and wrote letter to Congressmen