30 terms

NAQT Peoples of the Early Middle Ages

From the "You Gotta Know" list, February 2014. http://www.naqt.com/YouGottaKnow/peoples-of-the-early-middle-ages.html All answers are one word, plural form, in one case (Anglo-Saxons) hyphenated.
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Huns
These people entered central Europe from the steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas in the late fourth century. The Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus wrote that they inflicted "tremendous slaughter" on Germanic and Roman enemies alike.
Huns
Their great leader, Attila, known as the "scourge of God," was defeated at the Catalaunian Fields (near Chalons in what is now northern France) by an alliance of Romans and Visigoths. After Attila's death in 453, a rebellion of Germanic subject peoples broke up the Hunnic empire.
Visigoths
A Germanic people scattered by the advance of the Huns. They took refuge south of the Danube under the protection of the Roman Empire. When that "protection" was revealed to consist of abuse, fraud, and starvation, they rebelled and caused disorder in Rome's Balkan provinces.
Visigoths
In 410, led by Alaric, they sacked Rome itself.
Visigoths
Christians among the this tribe, like those among their Ostrogothic and Vandalic neighbors, subscribed to the heretical "Arian" beliefs, which caused conflict with their Roman subjects until the tribe's kings converted at a 589 church council.
Visigoths
By the middle of the fifth century, this people had settled in southern Gaul (the "kingdom of Toulouse") and the Iberian peninsula. Driven out of southern Gaul by the hostile Franks, they retained control over most of what is now Spain until their king Roderic was killed by Islamic invaders from North Africa in 711.
Ostragoths
When the Visigoths fled into the Roman empire, these were one of numerous Germanic peoples subjected to the Huns north of the Danube, but they threw off Hunnic domination after the death of Attila.
Ostragoths
After the last Roman emperor of the west, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed in 476, this people took advantage of the chaos to occupy Italy and establish their own kingdom. Their king Theodoric, known as "the Great," ruled from 493 to 526 and tried to restore peace to Italy.
Ostragoths
Their kingdom in Italy collapsed in the 6th century after the Byzantine generals Belisarius and Narses fought a series of destructive wars for control of the Italian peninsula.
Vandals
One of several peoples who crossed the frozen Rhine River into Roman Gaul on New Years' Eve, 406. From Gaul they moved into Spain and across the Strait of Gibraltar to attack Roman Africa.
Vandals
By 439 they had occupied Carthage, gaining control of the grain trade and possession of a substantial navy. This they used to embark on a second career as Mediterranean pirates.
Vandals
Their sack of Rome in 455 under King Gaiseric was reputedly much more destructive than the Visigothic one 45 years earlier. The ravages so dismayed Roman observers that the word "vandalism" still indicates senselessly destructive behavior.
Lombards
They moved into northern Italy (the region still known today as "Lombardy") after the peninsula had been devastated by the war between the Byzantines and the Ostrogoths.
Lombards
Although they were Catholics, their relationship with the papacy was often turbulent. Papal requests for assistance led to the 8th century invasion by Frankish forces under Charlemagne, who crushed their kingdom and seized their "iron crown."
Franks
They settled in Gaul late in the 5th century, displacing the Roman official Syagrius.
Franks
Clovis, the first great ruler of their Merovingian dynasty, converted to (Catholic) Christianity in 496. The close association with the papacy benefited both parties in an age when their mutual enemies (such as the Visigoths) were either heretics or still pagan. Merovingian Gaul was wracked by civil war among contending kings; by the beginning of the 8th century the Merovingians had lost effective power to their chief ministers, the "mayors of the palace."
Franks
In 751 mayor Pepin the Short, with permission from the pope, deposed the last Merovingian and established a new Carolingian dynasty of kings of this people. Pepin's son was Charlemagne, who subjugated much of western Europe and presided over a revival of learning known as the "Carolingian Renaissance." On Christmas Day 800 Charlemagne was crowned emperor in Rome. Charlemagne's grandsons quarreled over rights to his inheritance, splitting the empire into a cluster of regional domains. The westernmost ("West Francia") became the kingdom of France; the eastern one beyond the Rhine ("East Francia") retained the imperial title as the Holy Roman Empire.
Picts
Early medieval inhabitants of northern Britain, known for their raids on the Roman frontier fortification of Hadrian's Wall.
Picts
Their name (from the Latin pictus, "painted") may refer to their use of colorful tattoos. Their art is notable for elaborate stone carvings of mysterious beasts.
Picts
Starting in the 9th century, these kingdoms were absorbed by the neighboring kingdom of the Scots.
Anglo-Saxons
A group of Germanic peoples (primarily Angles, Saxons, and Jutes) who migrated from northwestern Europe (the North Sea coast of Germany and mainland Denmark) to Britain in the 5th and 6th centuries.
Anglo-Saxons
Settlers from this tribe conquered or displaced the Roman and British inhabitants of the island of Britain (semilegendary King Arthur is portrayed as a British ruler fighting against their expansion). By the early 7th century, seven kingdoms across southern and eastern Britain were known collectively as the Heptarchy (a group of seven rulers).
Anglo-Saxons
Christian missionaries arrived in Britain from Italy and Ireland to convert these pagan tribes. Cultural products of the newly Christian kingdoms included illuminated manuscripts; the writings of the monastic historian the Venerable Bede, and the epic poem Beowulf.
Anglo-Saxons
Their kingdoms were hard-hit by the Viking raids of the 9th century; only Wessex, the southwesternmost kingdom, survived and repelled the Scandinavian raiders. The kings of Wessex then unified the territories as a single kingdom of England.
Magyars
Like the Huns, these were a nomadic people of central Asia. Their language is Ugric, related to Finnish and a number of west Siberian languages.
Magyars
They occupied the Danube basin shortly before 900. They exploited the decline of the Carolingian empire to carry out raids on East Francia and on Italy. The 955 Battle of Lechfeld, won by Germany's Otto the Great, halted their expansion into central Europe.
Magyars
At the end of the 10th century, their grand prince was baptized with the name Stephen and crowned the first king of Hungary.
Vikings
Seaborne raiders from Scandinavia who used longships to attack coastal regions of western Europe between the late 8th and 11th centuries.
Vikings
Best known for pillaging English and Irish monasteries, they also settled and traded on waterways all over northern and eastern Europe, founding cities in Russia and making voyages to Iceland, Greenland, and the New World.
Vikings
Seized part of northern France from Charlemagne's heirs, establishing the duchy of Normandy. During the 11th century, Normans fought as mercenaries and built castles in Sicily, southern Italy, France, and Britain. Norman Duke William earned the epithet "the Conqueror" for his victory over the Anglo-Saxons at the 1066 Battle of Hastings.