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AP Biology Mitosis/Meiosis
Terms in this set (41)
in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
division of the cytoplasm of a cell following mitosis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells
the complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, it exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.
replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II.
a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions; split into G1, S, G2
Located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division; found only in animal cells
dense masses of RNA and protein that manufacture ribosomes, several of these are located in the nucleus.
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
the third phase of mitosis, during which sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite poles
the final stage of meiosis or mitosis, in which the separated chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the dividing cell and the nuclei of the daughter cells form around the two sets of chromosomes
a double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
pinching of the cell ("drawstring"): develops in animal cells only
the second phase of meiosis consisting of chromatids separating, along with the two diploid cells splitting in two
The first phase of meiosis I. the replicated chromosomes condense, homologous chromsomes pair up, crossing over occurs between homologous chromosomes, the spindle is formed, and the nuclear envelope breaks apart into vesicles. the longest phase of meiosis.
The third phase of meiosis I. the replicated homologous chromosomes are separated (the tetrad is split) and pulled to opposite sides of the cell.
The second phase of meiosis I. the paired homologous chromsomes (tetrads) align at the center of the cell (the metaphase plate).
The fourth of meiosis I. the number of chromosoms is now reduced by half. After this phase the cell is considered to be haploid. Note however, that the chromosomes are still replicated, and the sister chromatids must still be separated during meiosis II.
The first phase of meiosis II. identical to the mitotic step, except that the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
The second phase of meiosis II. identical to the mitotic step, except that the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
The third phase of meiosis II. the sister chromatids are finally separated at their centromeres and pulled to opposite sides of the cell. identical to mitotic anaphase, except the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis I.
The fourth and final phase of meiosis II. the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis. I.
term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes
an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
the side by side pairing of homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes at the start of meiosis
the paired chromosomes consisting of four chromatids
the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
any cell other than a gamete; in humans, has 46 chromosomes; body cells
sex cells; eggs and sperm; haploid; 23 chromosomes in humans
a fertilized egg (diploid)
Cyclin Dependent Kinases
cdk enzymes activate or inhibit proteins by phosphorylation to regulate cell cycle
external factors that stimulate the cell to divide
Law of Segregation
Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
Law of Independent Assortment
states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes
error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes don't separate; gametes end up with wrong number of chromosomes
chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structured, and that pair during meisosis
a congenital disorder caused by having an extra 21st chromosome
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