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Bio Finals Review
All 90 questions are on here but I just combined the question about examples for prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Terms in this set (89)
Way of knowing
Compare scientific theories to hypotheses
Hypotheses predict, theories unify observations and hypotheses.
What are the characteristics of living things
movement not required of living things
Describe the molecular structure of water
2 H, 1 O
Define solute, solvent, and solution
solvent does dissolving + solute is dissolved = solution
speeds up reaction rates.
What is unique about the element carbon?
C bonds itself to form many different molecules.
What is the function of an enzyme?
Define monomer, polymer.
Monomers are subunits of polymers
Describe function of proteins.
Control reaction rates.
Study of interactions between organisms and environment.
Name the primary producers
What do herbivores and carnivores have in common?
Define food chain and food web.
Food chains: sequence of what eats what.
Food web: network of food chains.
same as consumer
What is the function of nutrients?
carry out life functions.
Range of conditions by which organism survives.
where organism lives.
Both species benefit.
Compare parasitism to commensalism.
Parasitism: one helped, one harmed
Commensalism: one helped, the other neither helped nor harmed.
Compare primary and secondary succession
Primary succession: succession that occurs in an area in which no trace of a previous community is present.
Secondary succession: type of succession that occurs in an area that was only partially destroyed by disturbances.
Pattern of spacing in a population.
How do birthrate and death rate affect population size?
Birthrate adds, death rate subtracts.
How do resources affect a population?
Less resources, less population
Describe cell theory.
Fundamental concept of biology that states that all living things are composed of cells; that cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things; and that new cells are produced from existing cells.
The cell theory states:
-all living things are made up of cells.
-cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
-New cells are produced from existing cells.
Who named "cells"?
Differentiate prokaryotes from eukaryotes. Give an example of each.
Eukaryotes have a nucleus (almost all living things).
Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus (bacteria).
Which one has a nucleus?
Describe the nucleus of a cell.
In cells, structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA.
What are the functions of microtubules and microfilaments?
What is the function of the mitochondria?
converts energy stored in food to cellular compounds
What is the function of the cell membrane?
Regulates in and out.
What is the function of the cell wall?
supports and protects cell
Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
movement of molecules across a membrane from a higher concentration to lower concentration. When concentrations are equal, particles continue to cross membrane in both directions.
Describe active transport.
Cellular particle transfer that requires energy input from the cell.
Relatively constant internal conditions of an organism.
Group of similar cells that perform a particular function.
Describe ATP and its function inside the cell.
ATP consists of adenine, ribose, and three phosphates. Used ATP is never discarded as waste.
Organism that makes its own food.
What happens during the process of photosynthesis?
Autotrophs produce carbohydrates.
What are pigments?
Light absorbing molecules in plants.
The combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials.
How does cellular respiration release energy?
Breaking down glucose/food molecules.
Describe the sequence of events for cellular respiration.
Glycolysis - Krebs cycle - Electron transport
In what types of cells does cellular respiration occur?
All eukaryotic cells
What follows glycolysis?
Name two main types of fermentation.
Alcoholic, Lactic Acid
Compare small cells and large cells.
Smaller cells better at moving substances in and out of cell.
Draw/label a chromosome.
Label parts of a chromosome (see above)
Chromatid: little flappy thingies
Centromere: Middle attachment thingy.
Chromosomes are visible during
What happens before mitosis?
G2 phase and preparation for mitosis
A cell's DNA is replicated during
The two main stages of cell division are called
mitosis and cytokinesis
Mitosis starts with
What are the steps of mitosis in proper sequence?
PMAT: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
What's the difference between cell division in plant cells vs. animal cells?
Animal cells "pinch" apart. Plant cells grow cell plate.
What are cyclins?
Proteins (enzymes) that regulate cell cycle.
What is cancer?
Cellular disorder - cells lose ability to control growth rate.
What are alleles?
Different forms of a gene
Differentiate homozygous vs. heterozygous
Homozygous: identical alleles.
Heterozygous: different alleles.
Create a monohybrid cross. Give genotypic and phenotypic ratios.
Parent alleles: Tt, Tt
Phenotypic ratio = 3:1 (3 tall plants to 1 short plant)
Genotypic ratio = 1:2:1 (1 TT, 2 Tt, 1 tt)
Relating to or denoting heritable characteristics controlled by genes that are expressed in offspring only when inherited from both parents, i.e., when not masked by a dominant characteristic inherited from one parent.
What is true about double recessiveness?
An organism with double recessive gene trait had to receive one recessive gene from each parent.
Define incomplete dominance.
One allele completely dominant over another.
Define multiple alleles.
More than one version of a trait.
Differentiate haploid vs. diploid.
Diploid cells have normal number of chromosomes. Haploid cells have half number of chromosomes.
Gametes are produced during
What is the function of DNA?
Cell info storage.
Describe a DNA nucleotide.
Substance composed of deoxyribose, phosphate group and nitrogenous base.
Adenine pairs with Thymine. Cytosine pairs with Guanine.
Construct a strand of DNA, then construct its complementary strand.
DNA strand: A-T-C-G
Complementary strand: T-A-G-C
How many copies of chromosomes are left after replication?
Contains ribose, single-stranded, uses uracil.
Differentiate DNA vs. RNA
DNA has deoxyribose, RNA has ribose
DNA is double-stranded, RNA is almost always single-stranded.
DNA has thymine, RNA has uracil.
Genes contain the instructions for assembling
How many codons code for an amino acid?
What is the sequence in the transfer of genetic transfer?
DNA to RNA to protein
What happens during transcription?
RNA polymerase uses DNA segments to produce complementary RNA molecules - many RNA molecules made from DNA sequence
What happens during translation?
mRNA codes used to make protein
What is mRNA?
Messenger RNA - RNA that brings genetic code info from nucleus to other cell parts.
From where is mRNA transcribed?
According to Darwin, individuals survive due to
inherited adaptations that maximize fitness.
Describe conditions for natural selection to occur
Heritable variation, variable fitness, more offspring born than can survive.
Individuals that tend to survive are those that
have traits best suited to the environment.
Describe principle of common descent.
Principle that explains why vastly different species share a number of inherited characteristics.
Define vestigial structure.
Inherited ancestral structure that has lost much or all original use.
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