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Vannelli: PSU Challenge History Semester 1 Final
Terms in this set (12)
What events/circumstances instigated the beginning of the Renaissance and the re-discovery of classical thought in the West?
1. Growth of powerful dynasties (Tudor)
2. National monarchies
3. Emergence of modern nations
4. Modern warfare (artillery + gunpowder)
1. Capitalistic enterprises
2. Growth of larger towns and cities (cosmopolitans)
3. Exploration of 'new' world
1. Population growth (Europe doubles in population)
2. New classes emerge that challenge the old social order (middle class + elite professional class)
3. Universities and secular education arise (Bologna, Salerno, Paris)
Challenges of life:
1. Biological and climate factors (Bubonic plague 1346-1340)->breakdown of feudal relations and decreased authority of church
2. The "little ice age" begins mid-1300 century
1. Increased contact with Arabic culture and scholarship with Reconquista and Crusades
2. The infusion of classical via Arabic scholars
What is the 'intellectual debt' that is owed to the Arabic scholars and translators?
1. Geographic knowledge->one of the most advanced world maps, called The Tabula Rogeriana by al-Indrisi (1099-1165)
2. The work of Abu Nasr al-Farabi->extensive works on Aristotle, metaphysics, logic, language
3. Rhazes (865-925)->
-use of anesthesia
-vascular and cancer surgery
4. Ibn Sina or Avicenna->commentary on Aristotle's metaphysics, Book of Healing, Canon of Medicine (would be the authoritative medical text of the Mid Ages)
Why were the Italian City-States fertile ground for the period known as the Renaissance?
Define humanism. What are its associative characteristics and points of emphasis?
Humanism->an intellectual movement based upon the centrality of the human experience, and emphasizes the development of human self-actualization, free-will, and virtue
-instrument for social and self-inquiry
-emphasis on new from of learning with a return to classics and the ancient Church Fathers
-studia humanitatis->focus on classical studies of the humanities (trivium and quadrivium)
Create a list related to how Renaissance humanism is a break from the Middle Ages and also owes its origins to the medieval period.
In what ways do we see humanist influences in the artwork created during the Renaissance era?
1. Leonardo DiVinci's Vitruvian Man" 1490
-demonstrate the symmetry and proportion of the human body
-classical ideal of human perfection
-the golden ratio represented
-mathematics is the language of natural world
2. Pallas and the Centaur:
-Athena represents justice, purity, and beauty, and is the guardian of the city
-the centaur represents untamed nature, barbarism, and sensuality
-techniques->shading + linear perspective lens to realism of image
-humanist influences->classic figures to convey sense of human pursuit of virtue and civic duty
Considered the Father of Humanism, Petrarch contributed to the Renaissance by emphasizing the importance of returning to the works of the classical authors and reliving the golden splendor of the past. An author himself, he published various works of poetry, controversy, history, and reflections. He perfected the sonnet and along with Boccaccio and Dante created the first literary vernacular of modern Europe.
Pico della Mirándola
An Italian nobleman and philosopher, he proposed that he would write 900 theses on religion, philosophy, and magic, which were all incorporated into his book Oration on the Dignity of Man, which has been called the "Manifesto of the Renaissance."
Was a Florence humanist who both extolled the intellectual study and active involvement in human affairs, in an outlook he called civic humanism. He wrote The History of His Own Times in Italy, expressing a love for Ancient Greek literature and language.
(1406-1457) On Pleasure, and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy. Father of modern historical criticism.
What was N. Copernicus' revolutionary conclusion?
The heliocentric model of Copernicus, that stated that the sun was at the center of the solar system and Earth and the other planets revolved around it.
What dogmatic model does N.C. challenge?
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