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RENR 410- Exam 1
Terms in this set (70)
what is the primary function of management?
what are the management principles?
plan for the long term, management plans must survive in the short term, evaluate risks, and assume important decisions are wrong
when humans attempt to control ecosystems, it usually results in
ecosystems becoming less resilient and more vulnerable to external shocks
due to growing populations, ecosystems are required to produce more which is driven by
economic interests that focus on the short term success, societies that become increasingly dependent on control and over capitalization
who were the main drivers of the resource conservation ethic?
Gifford Pinchot and Teddy Roosevelt: producing the greatest good for the greatest amount of people
who were the main drivers of the romantic- transcendental ethic?
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Thoreau, and John Muir: nature has inherent value and that nature is a temple
who were the drivers of the evolutionary land ethic?
Aldo Leopold: nature is a complicated, interconnected, functional system resulting from long-term evolutionary change
what is the fundamental scientific basis of EM?
ecosystems are dynamic, ecosystem functions depend on diversity, structure, and integrity, and ecosystems are inherently uncertain
what is ecosystem management?
EM is an approach to maintain and restore the composition, structure, and function of ecosystems for long-term sustainability; this included collaborating with various stakeholder groups, integrates ecological, socioeconomic, and institutional perspectives, and is applied within a geographic framework
what was the national forest management act based on?
multiple-use and sustainable-yield principles which requires interdisciplinary planning
the endangered species act (1973)
Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation"
mental models develop
strategies, structure, and decisions
way we see the world
what kinds of things shape mental models?
norms, sanctions, experiences, and systems operations
single loop learning
very fixed mental model; mistakes are fixed in a certain way
double loop learning
a process that focuses on changing underlying beliefs as well as behavior
what are the barriers to learning?
time delays, limited knowledge or information, confounding variables, psychological variables, misperception of feedback
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
continuing source of information concerning relationship with external environment used to make changes with the end goal to survive and grow
feedback mechanisms are contrasted to
scientific reductionism which moves in unilateral very small context specific
interacting elements which are integrated into an integrated whole
what three things make up a system?
structure, behavior, and interconnectivity
elements can be both
tangible or intangible
interconnectedness can be both
physical and informational
a property of a system that emerges from the interaction of the elements of the system.
changing the elements of the system
has little effect on the system
changing the inter relationships of the system
can drastically change the system
changing the function of the system will
alter the system completely
elements functioning together within certain temporal and spatial scales
what are the four key components of an ecosystem?
-resilient and dynamic
-heterogenous which is identified by spatial scale
-permeable boundaries which blend together
-offer goods and services which are used by humans
what is the social-ecological system?
humans affect the ecosystem by altering it to fit our needs while the ecosystem provides us goods and services
what is churchman's critical systems thinking?
-see the world through eyes of another
-no omniscient experts
-ecologically viable and economically, socially, and culturally desirable future conditions
what is Senge's fifth discipline?
we are taught to break things down like reductionistic science, however the interrelatedness is more important
what is Bertalaffy's Open System Theory?
system is complex entity which refers to itself; resists influences from its environment and persists in competition
Checkland's Soft Systems Approach
using root definitions and conceptual models
Beer's Organizational Cybernetics
provided definitions for and identified roles of key elements and operational systems:
Achoff's Interactive Planning
asks what we can do now to create the future, aims to design a desirable future, and obstruction to change occurs mainly in the minds of pariticipants
four parts of a system
elements, interconnected, structure, and behavior
based on idea that system components are best understood in the context of relationships with each other and other systems, rather than isolation
systems thinking is in opposed to
art of analyzing and evaluation thinking with a view of improving it
what are the elements of though?
purpose, question at issue, based on information, interpretations or inferences, concepts and theories, assumptions, implications and consequences, and point of view
interrelated nature of things, emergence of elements, and whole is more than the sum of its parts
uncertainty and risk
condition of not knowing about something
statistical variation, systematic errors in judgement, linguistic impression, poor scientific background, and disagreement among experts
situation in which the outcome is not certain, but the probabilities can be estimated
ecological aspects of uncertainty
we can try to minimize uncertainty and plan for it to some degree but we cannot avoid it
_________ and __________ are inherent aspects of ecology and ecosystem management
complexity and uncertainty
what are the categories of uncertainty?
environmental variation, biological variation, non-independence of events, and human dimensions
cascading and cumulative effects
arise where there are manipulative effects from two more events or stresses that occur together
large class of effects that have additive results over time or space; "the last straw"
uncertainties in the human realm
human caused catastrophes, insufficient knowledge, human values and behavior are always changing
type 1 error
Rejecting null hypothesis when it is true
type 2 error
failing to reject a false null hypothesis
what are the approaches to plan for complexity and uncertainty"
include many people in decision making process, development of models and statistical analyses, making decisions with buffers that account for uncertainty, and employing adaptive management
what are the three types of organizations?
pathological, bureaucratic, and adaptive
recognize change is coming, put plan into action, continually learn, create experiments and form conclusions
characteristics of adaptive people
behavior: learn from new knowledge
decisions: productive and recognize tough decisions cannot be delayed
types of learning
traditional, trial and error, scientific experimentation, and adaptive management
learning from the past
trial and error
putting experience to test previous knowledge; is site and learner specific, outcomes are rarely documented
objectivity and repeatable; reductionistic and have limited utility for management scales; usually scales are too small or time is too short especially on heterogenous sites
treating management as an experiment; promotes ongoing learning and documenting outcomes; decisions are assumed to be not correct; specific thresholds and targets are created
active adaptive management
scientific approach to evaluate different management scenarios or alternatives; use of the scientific method; explicit models are included
passive adaptive management
some aspects of the scientific method are missing; less rigorous; documented trial and error
what are the three types of non-independent uncertainties of events and interactions?
indirect or cascading events, synergistic events, and cumulative effects
Indirect cascading effects
effects on ecosystems that are not a direct result of particular stress or event (trophic levels)
arise where there are multiplicative effects from two or more stresses that occur together (drought and disease)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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