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APHuG Ferry Cards 5
Terms in this set (82)
A group's system of economic production. Key factor in shaping all other aspects of the culture. Dependent on the relationship between environment and technology.
pertaining to land or its cultivation
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
The use of machinery in agriculture, like tractors ext. Makes it a lot faster for farmers to yield crop
The land that we farm on and what we choose to put were on our fields
Agricultural location model
An attempt to explain the pattern of agricultural land use in terms of accessibility, costs, distance, and prices.
Through time nomadic people noticed the growing of plants in a cycle and began to domesticate them and use for there own use. Without the development of agriculture we would still have a relatively small and likely uneducated population
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
Adapting an animal to humans through breeding and raising in a highly controlled environment for the purpose of attaining products such as milk, meat, fur, and oils.
the raising of plants or animals, such as fish or shellfish, in or at the bottom of the sea, a lake, a river, or other body of water
the genetic engineering of plants and animals with the potential to exceed the productivity of the Green Revolution
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
government-owned farms and employed large numbers of workers; all crops distributed by the gov't
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
The more developed world (MDC's) which produce more and are generally richer countries. (Commercial Agriculture is most common here)
The developing world (LDC's) which produce less and are generally poorer countries. (Subsistence Agriculture is most common here)
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
regions in which large amounts of agriculture take place
An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
Agreement in which a certain amount of foreign debt is canceled in exchange for local currency investments that will improve natural resource management or protect certain areas in the debtor country from harmful development.
Diffusion (of Agriculture)
The spread of an idea (such as a method of farming or a certain crop) from it's hearth to new locations.
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
Primary Economic activity
economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment-- such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
Secondary Economic Activity
when people use raw materials to produce or manufacture new products of greater value
tertiary economic activity
economic activity associated with the provision for services (transportation, banking, retailing, education, routine, office-based jobs)
quaternary economic activity
service sector industires concerned with the collection, processing, and manipuation of information and capital (finance, administration, insurance, legal services)
quinary economic activity
service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge skill (scientific research, high-level management)
Changing an environment in order to produce more of a food source. EX: Terrace farming, Ridge tillage, ect...
Chemicals used on plants to kill pests --insects, rats, ect-- but do not harm the plants themselves
the washing away of soil by the flow of water
the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert
extensive subsistence agriculture
consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Slash and Burn Agriculture
Another name for Shifting cultivation, specifically, a process in which vegetation is slashed, crops harvested, then the rest of the field is burned under controlled conditions to restore nutrients to the field
the raising of livestock for food by moving herds from place to place to find pasture and water
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
Industries involved in the activities of prospecting, exploring, developing, and producing for non-regenerative natural resources from the Earth
The mass production of farm products that lowers the prices, which lowers the profits for farmers.This had led to the decrease in small farms.
working the land as an occupation or way of life
a building where livestock are fattened for market
first agricultural revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
the occupation of catching fish for a living
a community of organisms where each member is eaten in turn by another member
the science of planting and caring for forests and the management of growing timber
consumer driven agriculture integrated on an international scale
Third Agricultural Revolution, started by Norman Borlaug, characterized by the use of Chemicals and the genetic modification of animals
the season during which a crop grows best
hunting and gathering
The process of living that involves hunting for meat, gathering edible produce, and traveling frequently.
intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
the growing of various types of crops
An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
the growing of vegetables or flowers for market
A agriculture found in South Africa, California, Chile, and mostly in the Mediteranean in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados, olives, and a host of nuts, fruits and vegetables are cultivated for profit.
natural resources containing hydrocarbons, which are not derived from animal or plant sources
the act of extracting ores or coal etc from the earth
economy that relies on a centralized government to control all or most factors of production and to make all or most production and allocation decisions
genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop, usually worked by slaves.
Resources that are able to be produced forever.
Resources that are limited or that cannot be produced forever
Sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities. Live in villages, hamlets on farms, or in other isolated houses.
Settlements characterized by many farmsteads which are dispersed throughout a settlement
a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings
Building Materials (Rural settlements)
They typically use whatever natural resources they can find in their environment
In subsistence agriculture, land is farmed by entire village and crops shared among the village.
Carl O. Sauer
He pointed out vegetative planting and seed agriculture as the original agrarian forms. He also points out that vegetative planting likely was originated in SE Asia and seed agriculture originated in W. India, N. China and Ethiopia.
second agricultural revolution
Pre industrial revolution, tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
Planting only one or two crops in a field, rather than several.
Grains that can be stored and used throughout the year
In American commercial grain agriculture, a farm on which no one lives; planting and harvesting is done by hired migratory crews.
A system of farming where lots up to a half mile or more extend back from a river, which farmers use as their primary means of hauling their agricultural products to the market.
metes and bounds
a system of land surveying east of the Appalachian Mountains. It is a system that relies on descriptions of land ownership and natural features such as streams or trees. Because of the imprecise nature of this surveying, the U.S. Land Office Survey abandoned the technique in favor of the rectangular survey system.
rigid grid-like pattern used to facilitate the dispersal of settlers evenly across farmlands
Highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply
third agricultural revolution
Read "Green Revolution" (If testing using Quizlet, answer is Third Agricultural Revolution)
the act of implementing the control of equipment with advanced technology
increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The development of higher-yield crops has produced: a 'miracle wheat seed" which is shorter and stiffer, less sensitive to variation in day length, responds better to fertilizers, and matures faster; a similar miracle rice seed, that was heartier and has increased yields; a high-yield corn seed is currently being developed.
the mass production of food products from raw animal and plan materials utilizing the principles of food technology
tragedy of the commons
situation in which people acting individually and in their own interest use up commonly available but limited resources, creating disaster for the entire community
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
the intensive production of fruits and vegetables for market rather than for processing or canning; synonyms horticultural farming, market gardening
created model that says that perishable goods are located near market area as well as heavy items