54 terms

Biology Unit 11

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Smallpox
Disease eradicated globally by widespread vaccination
phagocytes
a type of white blood cell that engulfs and destroys pathogens
identical
hybridoma cells produce antibodies which are
lymphocytes
type of white cells that produce antibodies
hybridoma
cell by fusion of a lymphocyte and a cancer cell
antigen
unique molecules on the surface of the cells
pathogen
agent that causes disease or illness in another organism
allergen
substance, often a protein that induces an allergy
histamine
causes dilation of capillaries and constriction of bronchial smooth muscle
antibody
y-shaped protein on the surface of b-cells
exoskeleton
rigid external covering of the body in some invertebrates
actin
thin contractile proteins in sarcomere
troponin
muscle proteins when combined with Ca2, initiates contraction
myosin
filament containing head that attaches to binding sites
antagonistic
biceps and triceps are blank muscles
calcium
ions released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
sarcomere
repeated units along the length of the myofibril
synovial
fluid in gap between the bones
the inflammatory response includes all of the following except for
vessel constriction
the secretion of antibodies by lymphocyte B cells provides
humoral immunity
what are the proteins secreted by plasma cells called?
antibodies
what does a B cell divide into when it encounters the antigen to which it is targeted
plasma cells
what is the function of memory cells?
to create an accelerated immune response upon second exposure to a particular antigen
diseases in which a person's immune system attacks the person's own normal tissue are called
autoimmune diseases
what are the cells that produce antibodies called?
plasma cells
what is the immune cell that allows for subsequent recognition of an antigen resulting in a secondary response called
memory cell
what is the primary mechanism of antibody action
complement activation
in a third class lever
the effort is position between the fulcrum and the resistance
what type of lever is most efficient for running
second class lever
which direction does the arm move during abduction
away from the body
in which of the following examples is the body working as a first class lever
moving the neck
in a blank lever, the resistance is positioned between the fulcrum and the effort
second class
the segment of a myofibril that is called a sarcomere runs from
one Z Line to the next Z line
The cross bridges involved in muscle contraction are located on the
myosin myofilaments
which of these statements is correct regarding muscle contraction
the cross bridges bind to the actin and shorten the sarcomeres
which of the following is responsible for limiting the range of movement of joints
ligaments
when a nervous impulse travels from a neuron to a muscle cell, what happens next
calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
which of the following statements about muscular response is not true
when a person is fully at rest, none of her muscles are contracting
which term is the smallest subdivision in this group
actin
in striated muscle cells, myofibrils are composed of
sarcomeres
biceps
`bend the arm
triceps
straighten the arm
humerus
anchors the muscle
radius
acts as a forearm lever for the biceps
ulna
acts as a forearm lever for the triceps
cartilage
smooth surface allows easy movement, absorbs shock, and distributes load
synovial fluid
provides lubrication, reduces friction in the joint
joint capsule
seals the joint, contains synovial fluid
tendons
muscle to bone
ligaments
bone to bone
spermatogonia
germinal cells in males
meiosis in spermatogoinia
reproduction of gametes
mitosis in spermatogonia
replenish number of spermatogonia
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