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A line used in positioning to ensure that the skull is in a true lateral position
Distance between these two points would indicate the widest dimension of the skull
Anatomical Landmarks used to evaluate the Lateral Projection
Orbital Lines or Roof
Body of Mandible
Greater/Lesser Wing of Sphenoid
Base of Skull, Mastoid Tip, Occlusal Plane
Perpendicular to the film for the AP Open Mouth C-Spine Projection
Skull angle of 54 degrees between the midsagital plane and long axis of the petrous bone
Skull angle of 47 degrees between the midsagital plane and long axis of the pertrous bone
Lateral Skull Potioning, Which baseline is perpendicular to the imaginary line along the front edge ofthe IR
IOML is Perpendicular to Imaginary Line
What Projection and CR angle to demonstrate the Superior Orbital Fissure?
Caldwell, 30 degrees Caudal
Which Baseline is parallel to IR for the Submentovertex Projection (SMV)
IOML is Parallel to IR, Perpendicular to CR
Properly positioned AP Axial (Towne) projection should place the dorsum sellae in the middle of?
Lack of symmetry of the Petrous Ridges indcates what problem with a Radiograph of an AP Axia Projection?
What Positioning errr is present if te Mandibular Rami are not superimposed on a Lateral Skull Radiograph?
Where should the Petrous Ridges be located on well positioned 15 Degree Caldwell?
Lower 1/3 of the Orbit
Where should the Petrous Ridges be located on well positioned 30 Degree Caldwell?
Lower than the lower 1/3 of the Orbit
CR and Patient Position for the Towne Projection ofthe Skull
2 1/2" superior to the Glabella, 30 degrees Caudal to the OML
CR and Patient Position for the Lateral Skull Projection
2" Superior to the EAM, Perpendicular to the IR
CR and Patient Position for the Caldwell Projection of the Skull
PA, OML& MSP Perpendicular to the IR, 15 degrees Caudal exiting the Naison
Structures best demonstrated on the Lateral Projection
Sellae Turcica in Profile, Cranial halves, Orbital Plates, Clinoids ad Rami Superimposed
Structures best demonstrated on the Caldwell Projection
Petrous Pyramids in the lower 1/3 of the Orbit
Haas (Reverse Town) Special Projection Patient Position and CR
PA, OML Perpendicular to the IR, 25 Degree Cephalad, Occipital Bone is Magnified
Caldwell Special Projection Patient Position and CR
PA, OML & MSP perpendicular to IR, 30 degrees Caudal,
Superior Orbital Fissure, Foramen Rotundum, Inferior Orbital Rim
SMV Special Projection Patient position and CR
Vertex of head on IR, IOML Parallel to IR, CR 3/4" Anterior to EAM & Perpendicular to IOML
Petrous Pyramids posterior to mandibular condyles, Sphenoid & Ethmoid Sinuses, Foramen Ovali & Foramen Spinosum
AP Axial (Towne) Skull results in about 10x's more dose to __________ than in a PA Axial (Haas) Projection.
Vertical Plate of the Ethmoid Bone forming the Upper Portion of the Bony Nasal Septum
Which structure of the Sphenoid allows for the passage of the Optic Nerve & is the actual opening into th orbit
Which Structure of te Sphenoid Bone help form part of the Lateral Walls of the Nasal Cavities
Medial & Lateral Pterygoid Processes
Small irregular bones that sometimes develop in adult skull sutures are_________&__________bones & are most frequently found in the________suture.
Sutural & Wormian Bones, Lambdoidal Suture
Small Prominence located on Squamous Portion of the Occipital Bone
External Occipital Protuberance or Inion
Opening of Temporal Bone serves as a Passageway for nerves of Hearing & Equilibrium
Internal Acoustic Meatus
CR Angles & Degree of Rotation stated for basic skull positions are based on the ___________Skull & has a angle of _________degrees between the Midsagital Plane & long axis of the Petrous Bone.
Mesocephalic, 47 degrees
Long, Narrow Skull has an angle of appx ______degrees between the midsagital plane & the long axis of the Petrous Bone
+/- 40 Degrees
5 Most Common Errors made during a Skull Radiograph
Incorrect CR Angle
Which Cranial Bone is best demonstrated w/ an AP Axial (Towne Method) projection of the skull
When using a 30 degre caudad angle for AP Axial (Towne) projection of skull, what positioning line should be perpendicular to the IR
If patient can't flex head for AP Axial (Towne), what should Tech do?
IOML perpendicular to IR 37 degrees Caudal
What evidence on AP Axial (Towne) indicates correct CR Angle & Correct Head Flexion
Dorsum Sellae & Posterior Clinoids visualized in Foramen Magnum
CR Angle for the AP Axial (Sella Turcica) if Dorsum Sellae & Posterior Clinoid Processes are Primary Interest
37 degree Caudad
CR for AP Axial (Towne) w/ IOML Perpendicular to IR
37 Degrees Caudad to IOML
30 Degrees Caudad to OML
2 Projections show Dorsum Sellae within Foramen Magnum
AP Axial (Towne) 30 Degrees Cephalic OML
PA Axial (Haas) 25 Degrees Cephalic OML
Rotation for Lateral Skull Positioning
Greater Wing of Sphenoid
(Left or Right Turn)
Tilt for Lateral Skull Positioning
Orbital Roof (Plate, Fontal Lines)
Body of Mandible
Lesser Wing of Sphenoid
(Chin up or don)
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