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Neurons have a ___ (AKA electrical potential) made by the difference in charged particles across that membrane.


charge is measured in ___

-70, -90

RMP is ___mV in neurons and ___mV in muscle cells


[T,F] the extracellular charge is more negative than intracellular charge


inside the cell are large anions, specifically ____, which contribute to the ICF negativity


The main IC ion in neurons


The main EC ion in neurons


Most important ion in maintaining RMP.


[T,F] K+ is more permeable than Na+, making it the most important ion in maintaining RMP.

3, 2

ratio of Na-K pump: _ Na+ to _ K+

active (1 ATP for every 3Na:2K movement)

the Na-K pump uses ___ transport


___ is made from glucose and O2 during aerobic respiration.

F (stimuli may depolarize and generate local potentials w/o generating APs)

[T,F] If a stimuli is strong enough to open Na-gated channels, it is strong enough to become an AP rather than just a local potential


short distance current: ___ potential


___ potentials (action or local) occur at the junctions of neurons


the parts of the nerve cell where information is received

local, action

___ potentials are achieved through gated channels, while ___ are achieved through voltage gated channels


___mV is the threshold level of depolarization needed to reach an AP from a local potential

trigger zone

If enough local potentials spread to the ___ ___ (the axon hillock area), it activates voltage gated channels and an AP fires


peek voltage during an AP is ___mV. This is when the cell is very depolarized and Na+ channels finally close.


Occurs b/c K+ channels are slow to close, allowing K+ to flow out for a bit longer down its concentration gradient (making ICF super negative)


during the ___ period, it's difficult to re-stimulate an AP immediately after "firing"

absolute, relative

The refractory period is broken into the ____ refractory period and the ___ refractory period

absolute refractory

during the ___ ___ period, it's impossible to generate another AP b/c Na+ channels are still open and the former AP is still going.

relative refractory

during the ___ ___ period, it takes a very intense stimulus to generate another AP since the K+ channels are still open


during the absolute refractory period, it's impossible to generate another AP since the ___ channels are still open


during the relative refractory period, it takes a very intense stimulus to generate another AP since the ___ channels are still open

schwann cells

form myelin sheaths on axons of nerves located in the peripheral nervous system


form myelin sheaths on axons of nerves located in the central nervous system.


signal conduction is much faster in ___ fibers.

nodes of Ranvier

where Na+ flows into the axon in myelinated fibers

nodes of Ranvier

where APs are generated in myelinated fibers

Saltatory Conduction

the name for signal conduction through myelinated fibers. Quick, relies on Na+ entering through the nodes and powering the AP through the internodes

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