41 terms

scientific method

make an observation, ask a question, form a hypothesis, conduct an experiment, see results, draw conclusion

independent

changing variable on x axis

dependent

control variable on y axis

speed

rate of change in position, scalar

velocity

rate of change in position, vector

scalar

speed only

vector

speed and direction

examples of scalar

length and volume

examples of vector

direction and displacement

kinetic energy

an object that is in motion has this (bowling ball, snowboarder)

potential energy

stored energy (pulling back a bow)

centripetal

in the center, in a circle

center of mass

the point where all mass exists, the balance point

momentum

the tendency of an object to stay in constant motion (uses speed, mass, and direction)

velocity units

m/s

acceleration units

m/s2

force units

N

momentum units

kgm/s

impulse units

kgm/s

kinetic energy units

J

potential energy units

J

work units

J

weight units

N

centripetal acceleration units

m/s2

period of a pendulum units

s

two things positive acceleration means

speeding up in a positive direction and slowing down in a negative direction

vertical velocity

free fall -9.8

horizontal velocity

constant motion, no change in velocity

changes in velocity as a ball is tossed upward

acceleration is constant and velocity decreases by 9.8 until it stops

weight

the force due to gravity

mass

measures inertia

centripetal acceleration

force that causes centripetal acceleration acceleration must be an unbalanced force

what must be true about an object's center of mass for it to be stable

it has to be over the base of the support

when do you have to worry about relativistic effects

traveling close to the speed of light

Newton's First Law of Motion

an object in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by another force

Newton's Second Law of Motion

F=ma

Newton's Third Law of Motion

for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

Law of Conservation of Energy

energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed

Law of Conservation of Momentum

momentum cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed

Einstein's First Postulate

the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference

Einstein's Second Postulate

The speed of light is constant