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decreasing angle between two bones ( i.e. bends limb)


increases angle,between two bones ( i.e. extends limb)


moving limb away from median plane


moving limb towards median plane


over developed , muscle gets larger w/ exercise


decrease in muscle, muscle shrinks


starting point of muscle (no movement)


opposite end ( most movement)

largest strong muscle of the head


what type of muscle is the eye


what do nasal turbinates do? what do they look like?

warm & humidify air, look like scrolls

where is the foramen magnum? what is it?

occipital & foramen magnum is a hole where spinal cord passes through

what are sutures? where are they commonly found

firm/immovable fibrous joints, in the skull, uniting majority of component bones.

2 halves of the jaw come together at

mandibular symphysis

where does the hip connect to the pelvis?

pubic symphysis

vertebral column

Cervical-7, Thoracic-13, Lumbar-7, Sacral-3, Caudal-cd20-23(tail)

antebrachium, what makes it?

forearm. ulna and radius

largest bone in the hindlimb


largest bone in the forelimb


what is a synovial joint

the most moveable type of joint, achieve movement at the point of contact of the articulating bones

types of synovial joints

hip, shoulder,scapulohumeral

example of a splancnic bone

os penis, os cordis

example of a sesamoid bone


what meds are given IM

anti-inflammatory, antibiotics

where are IM meds commonly given

gluteal muscle

digital extensors do what

extend the toes

carpal flexors do what

flex the wrist

muscles of the thorax

external and internal intercostals

external intercostals assit w/ what


internal intercostals assit w/



Packed cell volume

PCV def

percent of red blood cells in total blood

high PCV


low PCV

over hydration, acute or chronic blood loss, immune mediated disease

Total Protein (TP)

measures ratio of protein in blood

normal TP


more concerned w/ low or high TP?

low TP, liver disease

What is TP looked at with

refractometer,calibrated with distilled water


plasma w/o the clotting factor


liquid part of the blood

what do pectorals do?

adduct the limbs

what do triceps brachi do

extend the elbow

what do biceps brachi do

flex elbow

two ossification methods

intramembranous an endochondral


round projection on bone


hole/passage for blood vessels


hollow or depressed area on bone


connects muscle to bone


connects bone to bone

3 dog skull shapes

dolichocephalic-long & narrow-greyhound, afghan hound
brachycephalic-short & wide- boxer,bulldog, pug
mesaticephalic- normal, average shape-lab,retriever

cat skull

round & apple shaped


a bone forming cell


destroys, remodels bone to make bone marrow cavity

zygomatic arch

cheek bones, common restraint for cats

saggital crest

"idiot bump" , ridge of the bone on dorsal part of skull

bone shapes

long, flat, short, irregular

long bones

limbs(femur, humerus). has a shaft w/medullary cavity

flat bones

skull, scapula, ribs. no medullary cavity,compact outer layer with spongy inner

short bones

carpal/tarsal bones,no medullary cavity

irregular bones

vertebrae, uniformed in shape, lie in midline, unpaired

skeletal system

framework of the body and made up of bone & cartilage

5 skeletal system funcc

locomotion, protection, storage, support, hemopoiesi

specialized bones

sesamoid-develop in ligament, tendon,seasme seed shaped.
pneumatic- air filled spaces, sinus cavity
splanchnic-developed in organ-os penis

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