The passive movement of particles from an area of high concentration to low concentration. This happens along a concentration gradient
A passive movement of water molecules through a semi permeable membrane. Water moves from an area of low solute concentration to high solute concentration
An active movement where an input of energy is required. Particles move from low concentration to high concentration
A passive movement of particles from high to low concentration through a protein channel in a cell.
The same concentration of dissolved substances. Water in = water out.
Higher concentration of solutes outside cell than inside
A cell has more solute inside than outside.
Cell may explode under pressure due to a hypotonic solution.
Movement out of a cell
Movement into a cell
A vesicle that contains destructive/digestive chemicals
Questions that can be answered by using experiments and factual reasoning.
The study of living organisms and how they function.
A method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
1st part of the scientific method
Experimental design refers to how participants are allocated to the different conditions (or IV groups) in an experiment.
factors that are kept constant or unchanging.
The process of studying of something to gain information.
A conclusion made up of facts and inferring knowledge.
The final ending or idea of a process
A statement about the hypothesis
Balancing human or any living organisms
packages proteins from the ER and materials and sends them to other parts of the cell
network or tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell with a smooth surface; functions in a variety of different metabolic processes such as synthesis of lipids, oils, phospholipid and steroids; process drugs, alcohol, and store calcium ions
network of tubular membanes within the cytoplasm of the cell with a rough surface (ribosomes are attached to it); helps the ribosomes make proteins, such as insulin
tiny structures within the cell that carry out specific functions
forms a flexible boundary between the living cell and its surroundings; made if phospholipids
oval-shaped organelle that contains DNA and controls much of the cell's activities by directing protein synthesis
carries out cellular respiration; rod-shaped organelle that makes energy for the cell to function with; converts the energy stored in food to energy the cell can use (ATP); "powerhouse" of cell
nuclear subdomain that assembles ribosomal subunits in eukaryotic cells; makes rRNA to form the subunits of ribosomes, which then exit to the cytoplasm
complex of DNA and proteins that form within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells; directs the cells' functions
sac-like organelle that holds water, food and organisms; can also store waste products until removed
green structure that captures energy from sunlight and changes it to energy that cells can use in making food.
plant, bacteria or archea cell
animal cell with nucleus
small grain-shaped organelle that produces proteins
thin, flexible barrier that surrounds the cell and controls what goes in and out; found in animal cells
the thick fluid region of a cell inside the membrane or next to the nucleus
membrane-enclosed sac of digestive enzymes; contains chemicals that break down bigger food particles so they can be used in the cell; also break down used cell parts. The cell's "recycling center".
rigid layer surrounding the cells of plants
made of many cells
small set of microtubules arranged in a specific way
thin membrane of lipid molecules
short appendages that propel certain cells
networks of protein fibers that extend through the cell
why are cells so small?
smaller cells have more surface area across which to pass oxygen, nutrients and waste materials
a long projection from a prokaryotic cell that propels it through its liquid environment
where are ribosomes found?
free-floating in the cytosol, or bound to the rough ER or the nuclear envelope
sacs made of membranes
What does the Golgi apparatus do?
processes, warehouses and ships (outside and inside cell) ER products
folds in the mitochondria that increase the surface area and therefore its ability to produce ATP
Adenine Triphosphate - main energy source for cellular work
What type of cell is this?
What type of cell is this?
What organelle functions to isolate a human cell's chromosomes from the cytoplasm?
What is the basic unit of life?
In what organelle of a plant cell does photosynthesis occur?
It is generally believed that most of the oxygen in the air on Earth today came from what general biological process:
What is the most common term for the biological polymer found in chromosomes that stores genetic information?
The spontaneous movement of molecules through a semi-permeable membrane in order to create equilibrium.
Small part of all living things.
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy. products of photosynthesis are glucose and oxygen
photosynthesis equation(very important)
6CO2 + 6H2O --> light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
A structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food. main function of chloroplasts is to produce food (glucose) Chloroplasts contain the pigment, chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs most of the colors in the color spectrum, and reflects only green and yellow wavelengths of light. This is why we see leaves as green or yellow - because these colors are reflected into our eyes.
another name for sugar C6H12O6 three things used for making glucose are sunlight water and carbon dioxide used for energy and growth
main source of energy
C6H1206->CO2 + H20+ ENERGY (released) goal is to create ATP occurs in all living things
An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work the energy is stored in ATP until it is released by the reactions remove a phosphate from ATP a simple way of remembering it is just that it's just energy
Organisms that are able to make their own food.
Organisms that depend on other organisms for their food.
Reproduction accomplished by a single organism.
Reproduction that requires two organisms
An abrupt and marked change in the DNA of an organism compared to that of its parents
An educated guess that attempts to explain an observation or answer a question.
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data.
A theory that has been tested by and is consistent with generations of data.
A cell that has no distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.
A cell with distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.
The region of a eukaryotic cell that contains the cell's main DNA.
A membrane-bounded "sac" within a cell.
An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
A pigment necessary for photosynthesis.
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms.
A chemical that provides both toughness and flexibility.
The anaerobic breakdown of sugars into smaller molecules.
The basic building blocks of matter.
Chemicals that result from atoms linking together.
The random motion of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
A membrane that allows some molecules to pass through but does not allow other molecules to pass through.
The tendency of a solvent to travel across a semipermeable membrane into areas of higher solute concentration.
Lacking any affinity to water.
Maintaining the status quo.
Producing more cells.
A rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells.
The semipermeable membrane between the contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings.
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy.
The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids.
Non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible fore protein synthesis.
An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell.
ER that is dotted with ribosomes.
ER that has no ribosomes.
A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes.
The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells.
The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell.
Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure.
A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell.
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement.
A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group.
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion.
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a process that requires energy.
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in a solution.
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution.
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution.
Deoxyriboneucleic acid found mainly in the nucleus
2 parents male and female
made up of DNA and proteins
state reaches when each part of the body functions in equilibrium with other parts.
is a carbon ring structure that contains one or more atoms of nitrogen. In DNA, Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine.
WHAT YOU MEASURE- ON Y AXIS
WHAT YOU CHOOSE VALUES FOR- ON Y AXIS
VARIABLES THAT REMAIN CONSTANT OR UNCHANGED
a change in the DNA of a gene.
any living thing; something that meets all criteria of life. Ex. so far, we have not found proof of any living ________ on another planet.
process by which organisms produce new organisms of their own kind