34 terms

Cell Energetics Honors Biology

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Enzyme
Biological catalyst made of amino acids.
Substrate
Reactant an enzyme catalyzes
Active Site
structure on the enzyme
Reactants
The molecules needed for a chemical reaction to occur
Products
Molecules that are made when a chemical reaction is over
Activation Energy
The amount of energy needed for a reaction to occur.
Heat of Reaction
The difference in energy between the reactants and products of a chemical reaction
Exothermic
a reaction that has a "-" heat of reaction b/c it releases more energy that it stores
Endothermic
a reaction that has a "+" heat of reaction and stores more energy than it releases.
Catalyst
Speeds up a chemical reaction
Variables that effect enzyme reaction rate
Temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration
denature
enzyme becomes "inactive" due to changes in the active site structure
enzyme specificity
enzyme only bonds to one substrate due to shape of active site
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
ADP
ATP is converted to this and it releases energy that your cells use
chemosynthesis
Process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
photosynthesis
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
producer
An organism that can make its own food.
autotroph
An organism that makes its own food
consumer
An organism that eats other organisms
heterotroph
An organism that cannot make its own food.
food chain
is the transfer of food energy from one source to the next
herbivore
A consumer that eats only plants.
carnivore
An animal that eats other animals
omnivore
A consumer that eats both plants and animals.
detritivore
organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter
decomposer
An organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms
trophic level
Each step in a food chain or food web
food web
A diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem.
biomass
A measure of the total dry mass of organisms within a particular region
primary producer
Organisms in the first trophic level, such as plants and algae.
primary consumer
An herbivore; an organism in the trophic level of an ecosystem that eats plants or algae
secondary consumer
An organism that eats primary consumers
teritary consumer
An animal that feeds on secondary consumers in a food chain.