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APUSH Ch. 18 Review

AP US History American Pageant 13th Ed. Chapter 18 Review (Vocab + Questions) Also used: http://wikinotes.wikidot.com/chapter-18-13
STUDY
PLAY
Election of 1848
Lewis Cass (Democrat who support popular sovereignty) vs. Zachary Taylor (Whig party); Taylor won
popular sovereignty
the people of a territory should decide and issue for themselves
Zachary Taylor
Whig Party candidate in the election of 1848
Lewis Cass
Democratic Party candidate in the election of 1848
Sutter's Mill
Where gold was first discovered in 1848; marked the beginning of the Gold Rush
Result of the Gold Rush
California had enough people to become a state
Fugitive Slave Law
"round up" runaways up North and ship them back South
Underground Railroad
a secret route from "station to station" that led many slaves to the North and eventually to Canada
Harriet Tubman
most well-known "conductor" of the "railroad;" snuck back into the South 19 times and led some 300+ slaves to freedom
Henry Clay
the "Great Compromiser;" offered a compromise for the California slavery issue
John C. Calhoun
argued for the South and for states' rights; wanted slavery to be left alone, the runaway slaves to be returned to the South, and state balance kept intact
Daniel Webster
argued for the North; opposed to slavery's expansion
Seventh of March
In this speech, Webster urged the North to compromise on the issue of California slavery
William H. Seward
Chief among the Young Guard; staunchly against slavery
Said Americans must follow "higher law"
higher law
God's law, above the Constitution
Millard Fillmore
Took over for President Taylor when he died (was Taylor's VP)
Compromise of 1850
North:
• California admitted as a free state
• Texas gave up its claims to lands disputed with New Mexico
• Slave trade in D.C. was banned, but slavery was legal
South:
• Popular sovereignty in Mexican Cession lands
• Texas was paid $10 million for land lost
• A new, tougher Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
Election of 1852
Franklin Pierce (Democrat) vs Winfield Scott (Whig); Pierce won landslide
Franklin Pierce
Democratic candidate in the election of 1852; was not a great leader, but had no enemies
Winfield Scott
Whig candidate in election of 1852
Nicknamed "Old Fuss and Feathers"
Free Soil Party
Party that garnered 5% of the Northern vote
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
Treaty that erased U.S. and British tensions and said neither the U.S. or Britain would take over the area without the other's agreement
slavocracy
a conspiracy theory where the South was supposedly always seeking to add new slave lands
William Walker
tried to take over Nicaragua in 1856
Ostend Manifesto
said the U.S. would offer $120 million for Cuba, and if Spain rejected it, the U.S. would be justified in taking Cuba by force
Black Warrior
American ship seized by Cuba
Caleb Cushing
Sent by President Tyler to China to work a favorable deal to the U.S.
Commodore Mathhew Perry
got Japan to open itself to trade in the Treaty of Kanagawa
Treaty of Kanagawa
Perry got Japan to open up to U.S. to trade
James Gadsden
sent to Mexico to work a deal for the land
Gadsden Purchase
bought the southern chunk of present Arizona and New Mexico for $10 million
Stephen Douglas
threw a wrench in the railroad plans
Kansas-Nebraska Act
proposed to organize Kansas and Nebraska and move the transcontinental railroad up north
self-determination
In politics, the right of a people to assert its own national identity or form of government without outside influence
homestead
A family home or farm with buildings and land sufficient for survival
vigilante
Concerning groups that claim to punish crime and maintain order without legal authority to do so
sanctuary
place of refuge or protection, where people are safe from punishment by the law
fugitive
A person who flees from danger or prosecution
topography
The precise surface features and details of a place - for example, rivers, bridges, hills - inrelation to one another
mundane
Belonging to this world, as opposed to the spiritual world
statecraft
The art of government leadership
isthmian
Concerning a narrow strip of land connecting two larger bodies of land
filibustering
Adventurers who conduct a private war against a foreign country
mikado
A title of the Japanese emperor used by foreigners
cloak-and-dagger
Concerning the activities of spies or undercover agents, especially involving elaborate deceptions
manifesto
A proclamation or document aggressively asserting a controversial position or advocating a daring course of action
booster
One who promotes a person or enterprise, especially in a highly enthusiastic way
truce
A temporary suspension of warfare by agreement of the hostile parties
Stephen A. Douglas
Illinois politician who helped smooth over sectional conflict in 1850 but then reignited it in 1854
Franklin Pierce
Weak Democratic president hose pro-soutthern cabinet pushed aggresive expansionist schemes
District of Columbia
Place wehre the slave trade was ended by the Compromise of 1850
Fire-eaters
Hotheaded southern agitators who pushed for southern interests and favored secession from the Union
Mason-Dixon line
The boundary line between slave and free states in the East, originally the southern border of Pennsylvania
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
An agreement between Britain and America concerning any future Central American canal
Ostend Manifesto
A top-secret dispatch, drawn up by American diplomats in Europe, that detailed a plan for seizing Cuba from Spain
Missouri Compromise
The sectional agreement of 1820, repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Democratic (Party)
The political party that was deeply divided by Douglas's Kansas-Nebraska Act
Republican (Party)
A new political party organized as a protest against the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Whig (Party)
The conflict over slavery after the election of 1852 led shortly to the death of this party
The North
The greatest winner in the Compromise of 1850
California
Under the terms of the Compromise of 1850, the state that was admitted as a free state
Utah and New Mexico
Under the terms of the Compromise of 1850, the states that slavery was left up to popular sovereignty
Henry Clay and Daniel Webster
The two notable advocates of compromise in the controversy over slavery in 1850
Daniel Webster
During the debate over the Compromise of 1850, northern antislavery forces were particularly outraged by what they considered the "betrayal" of this senator
Kansas-Nebraska
Act wrecked the Compromise of 1850 and created deep divisions within the Democratic Party.