50 terms

World History Chapter 7

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Topography
The physical features of a land.
Aryans
A fair-skinned, warlike people that migrated into the Indus Valley from central Asia sometime after 1500 BC.
Sanskrit
A language established in India by the Aryans.
Vedas
A collection of religious literature that preserved early traditions and religious beliefs of the Indians, which were orally passed down from one generation to the next.
Joint Family
The extended family that included the children, grandchildren, wives, and close blood relatives of a common ancestor.
Castes
Rigid social groups that are governed by strict rules.
Hinduism
Ingrained in the Indian way of life. It developed from the early culture and traditions of India. Has no formal statement of doctrine.
Brahman
Hindu god who supposedly permeates everything in the universe.
Buddhism
A religion built on works and moral behavior.
Siddhartha Gautama
The founder of Buddhism. Later known as Buddha, the "Enlightened One."
Four Noble Truths
1. Suffering is part of all existence.
2. Suffering has a cause--selfish desires.
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3. Suffering can be overcome by destroying selfish desires.
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4. Man will destroy selfish desires by following the Eightfold Path.
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Asoka
The most famous of the Mauryan rulers, Chandragupta's grandson. He extended the Mauryan Empire to include all but the southern tip of India. Renounced war and converted to Buddhism.
Gupta Empire
India entered a new, and perhaps her greatest, era of prosperity and achievement under this dynasty.
Kalidasa
The foremost Indian poet and dramatist of this period whose plays have earned him the title "the Indian Shakespeare."
Middle Kingdom
In ancient days the Chinese named their land this because they believed China to be the center of the earth.
Ancestor Worship
The leading religion in China. Every Chinese house contained an ancestral altar before which the Chinese burned incense to the spirits of their dead.
Taoism
Men can achieve harmony by ceasing to strive after power, wealth, and learning; instead they should adopt a simple, inactive lifestyle. Became the basis for mystical, magical, and superstitious elements in Chinese society. Favors a more passive lifestyle and attempts to free man from the busyness of responsibility. Minimizes external authority and involvement in society.
Confucius
The most honored teacher in Chinese history. The Chinese call him "The Master." K'ung Fu-tzu grew up in poverty during a time of social and political unrest in China. He believed that through proper cinduct man could solve the problems of society and live in complete happiness.
Lao-tzu
Taught that tao was the pervading force in nature. He encouraged men to find peace and happiness by living in harmony with nature.
Wu Ti
The most famous Han ruler. He drove back the Huns and extended China's territory.
Pax Sinica
"Chinese Peace." Established throughout China and much of central Asia.
Li Po
The most popular and prolific poet who wrote thousands of poems expressing emotional and sentimental themes.
Yamato Clan
Extended its authority and forged a unified Japanese state. Centered on the main Japanese island, Honshu.
Jimmu Tenno
In legend, he was the first emperor of Japan and a direct descendant of the sun goddess. "Heavenly Prince."
Shintoism
Originally a form of nature worship that attributed deity to anything in nature that was awe-inspiring or extraordinary, such as fire, a waterfall, or a high mountain. It became a religion of feeling. "The way of the gods."
Prince Shotoku
A member of the imperial family who made Buddhism the favored national religion. He also sent many young men to China to study the Chinese ways.
Taika Reform
The turnabout in the Japanese political and economic structure. "Great Change."
Fujiwara
A family that married their daughters to the sons of the imperial family.
Yoritomo
The leader of the Minamoto clan. He became the supreme military leader of Japan when he defeated the only remaining powerful clan.
Shogun
"Great general." Held the real power over the Japanese government from 1192 to 1868.
Samurai
The Japanese warrior and leading class in society.
Bushido
An unwritten military code that governed the conduct of the samurai.
Kublai Khan
The last of the Great Khans, the heir to the Mongol world. After a long campaign, he succeeded in conquering southern China, the stronghold of the Sung dynasty.
Chinggis Khan
"Universal ruler" given to the Mongol leader Temujin in 1206 after he united the Mongols.
Batu Khan
Led the Mongols into Europe. Crushed the Russian defenses and penetrated Hungary and Poland.
Golden Horde
Batu's realm, the strongest Mongol state in Western Asia.
Tamerlane
Mongol leader who conquered Persia and Mesopotamia
Ivan III
The Grand Prince from 1462 to 1505. Refused to pay further tribute to the Mongols. Extended his control over much of northern Russia.
Autocratic Leader
Rules with unlimited authority.
Babur
"The Tiger." A descendant of two of the greatest Asian conquerors. Became the leader of the Turkish-Mongol tribes in what today is Afghanistan.
Mughal
Name given to the Mongols in India.
Akbar
The greatest Mughal ruler who was Babur's grandson. Expanded the empire to include all of northern and central India.
Sub Saharan Africa
All of Africa south of the Sahara Desert.
Frumentius
Syrian Christian who worked to convert Aksum.
Mansa Musa
The most famous ruler of Mali.
Swahili
The language of the African city-states. Dominantly native African but also contained elements of Arabic, Persian, and Indian.
Polygamy
Marrying more than one wife.
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