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ENG II UNIT 5 THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH VOCABULARY
Terms in this set (50)
a reference to anything, especially within a work of literature
improvement in the meaning or status of a word; compare pejoration.
a word or usage peculiar to American English
a language that uses whole words, rather than parts of words, to show grammatical relationships; compare synthetic language.
to make a borrowed word resemble English in pronunciation, spelling, or form
a word no longer in common use but retained in a language because it preserves the flavor of a period
a poem that tells a story; the conventional ballad stanza is iambic tetrameter in the first and third lines, iambic trimeter in the second and fourth lines, with a rhyme scheme of abcb.
word that comes from the same root as another with the same meaning, as German wasser and English water.
the inflection of verbs; a class of verbs inflected in the same manner; compare declension.
the suggestions or implications associated with a word in addition to its literal meanings
the inflection of nouns; a class of nouns inflected in the same manner; compare conjugation.
a variety of speech peculiar to a particular region; also, a social dialect peculiar to a social class
one of two or more different words in a language derived from the same original source but coming by different routes, as aptitude and attitude.
the history of a word traced through changes in meaning and form to the earliest known form of the word
the variety of standard English used to express abstract or sophisticated ideas, as in a research paper or literary criticism
general American dialect
the dialect of American English spoken in all of the United States except New England and the Southern states
the variety of standard English used for most speech and writing by educated users. Compare informal English; formal English.
a meaning change in which a word changes from specific to general or extends its meaning to include a related concept
Germanic Consonant Shift
a change in the pronunciation of consonant sounds
pretentious, roundabout, redundant writing that uses abstract or technical terms inappropriately; the abuse of formal English
meaning determined by or through syntax and morphology.
Great English Vowel Shift
a pronunciation change in which the elongated short vowels of Middle English were diphthongized to become the "long" vowels of Modern English
produced in the throat
a form of expression peculiar to a language and approved by usage; may have a meaning other than the logical or grammatical one
the verb form used to indicate a command or instruction. Compare indicative mood; subjunctive mood.
the verb form used for ordinary statements and questions; compare imperative mood; subjunctive mood.
a word ending used to indicate tense, mood, gender, case, number, etc.; also the pattern of change expressed through inflected endings; see conjugation; declension.
the variety of standard English used in casual and intimate conversations, letters, etc.; compare general English; formal English.
the specialized vocabulary of a particular trade, sect, or profession; also called "shop talk".
a reference to a literary work, particularly to one that is well-known, either by quoting from the material or by mentioning the work
a word borrowed from another language, sometimes altered to fit the sounds or structure of the new language
the smallest unit of semantic or grammatical meaning, including words, bases, affixes, and inflections
the relationship of word parts to one another; compare syntax.
New England dialect
the regional variety of American English spoken in the New England states; compare Southern dialect; General American.
English usage that has not gained literary or social acceptance; the usage of poorly educated speakers; compare standard English.
a system of spelling
a meaning change in which a word is downgraded in meaning or status; compare amelioration.
one letter or symbol corresponding to one sound
a style of punctuation popular in the 17th-19th centuries, characterized by long sentences and commas or semi-colons indicating pauses in the speaker's voice rather than grammatical relations. Compare structural punctuation.
symbols from an old Germanic alphabet of twenty-four characters (runes)
the denotative and connotative meaning(s) of a word; that which the word symbolizes; compare grammatical meaning.
colorful and eccentric language used by a particular social group among themselves; also certain newly coined forms not yet accepted as informal idiom
the dialect spoken in Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, and all states east and south of these regions; compare General American; New England dialect.
a meaning change from general to specific or broad to narrow. Compare generalization.
English usage which has gained literary, cultural, and social acceptance as appropriate for educated speakers; compare substandard English.
a style of punctuation that emphasizes and clarifies grammatical relationships of words in a sentence; compare rhetorical punctuation.
the verb form indicating desire, supposition, a situation contrary to fact or which may or may not exist, etc.; disappearing in Modern English; compare imperative mood; indicative mood.
the aspect of grammar dealing with word order and word relationships; compare morphology.
a language that puts together word parts (inflections, etc.) to form units of grammatical meaning
a word or phrase formed from a verb and acting as a noun or adjective; a participle, infinitive or gerund.
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