Summary of a data set in the form of tables, graphs or the calculation of numerical measures.
Extracting useful information from a sample to draw conclusions about a population.
Complete collection of items
Subset of the population of interest.
Values of a characteristic of many subjects at the same point in time or without regard to differences in time
Values of a characteristic of a subject over time.
Labels or names are used to identify the distinguishing characteristics of each observation
Meaningful numerical values are used to identify the distinguishing characteristic of each observation
A countable number of values - whole numbers
Can take on any value within an interval.
Groups data into categories and records the number of observations that fall in each category.
Relative frequency distribution
The proportion or fraction of observations in each category.
Cumulative frequency distribution
The number of observations that fall below the upper limit of each class.
Cumulative relative frequency distribution
The proportion or fraction of observations the fall below the upper limit of each class.
A graphical tool that helps in determining whether or not two quantitative variables are related in some systematic way. Each point on the diagram represents a pair of observed values of the two variables.
Middle value of a data set that has been arranged in ascending order. Especially useful when outliers are present.
Value in the data set that occurs with the most frequency. A data set may have no mode, one mode, or more than one mode.
Range = Max - Min
Measures the relative location of the sample value of x.
Covariance and Correlation Coefficient
Measures that assess the direction and strength of a linear relationship between two variables.