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NC Biology Final Review
Terms in this set (225)
Brain of the cell, contains the DNA & chromosomes.
Cell's outer boundary, lipids & proteins, semipermeable.
Found in plants only to maintain structure, not semipermeable.
Powerhouse of the cell, where cell respiration occurs.
Large in plants, small in animals, used for storage
Sites of photosynthesis, contain chlorophyll.
Sites of protein synthesis, where mRNA & tRNA meet
how do Nucleus and ribosome work together
DNA makes mRNA in the nucleus and sends it to the ribosome
how do the Plasma membrane and mitochondria work together
plasma membrane takes in glucose and oxygen that is needed by the mitochondria for cell respiration. The Plasma membrane also releases CO2 from the process.
how do the Cell wall and vacuole work together
as water goes into the vacuole, osmotic pressure builds up in the cell and the cell doesn't burst due to the strength of the cell wall.
how do the Cell wall and chloroplasts work together
since the cell wall is not semipermeable, the materials needed for photosynthesis flow freely into the cell.
how does the structure of the nucleus determine its function
the semipermeable double-layered membrane of the nucleus keeps DNA and other substances in the nucleus and other things out
how does the structure of the plasma membrane determine its function
the semipermeable lipid bi-layer allows certain substances into the cell and keeps other substances out
how does the structure of the cell wall determine its function
the cell wall's stringy cellulose structure allows for everything to pass through while still maintaining structure when osmotic pressure increases
how does the structure of mitochondria determine its function
folded inner membrane in mitochondria increases surface area for energy production during aerobic cellular respiration
how does the structure of vacuoles determine its function
the single membrane and fluid contents of the vacuole help it store items
how does the structure of chloroplasts determine its function
the double membranes of the chloroplast allow for maximum absorption of sunlight
how does the structure of ribosomes determine its function
consists of 2 parts - one part allows attachment of the mRNA and the other part allows for attachment of tRNA and amino acids during protein synthesis.
how are energy production and energy use used to carry out life functions
Mitochondria makes ATP, ribosome uses it in protein synthesis
how do transport of molecules carry out life functions
Plasma membrane allows entrance, cytoplasm circulates.
how does disposal of waste carry out life functions
Wastes stored in vacuole are sent to plasma membrane.
how does synthesis of new molecules carry out life functions
Nucleus sends mRNA to ribosome, tRNA brings AA to put proteins together
How do you determine total power magnification of a light microscope?
Ocular x Objective
Which reveal greater detail about eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell differences?
Scanning/electron transmission microscopes
Which are more complex, prokaryotic cells or eukaryotic cells?
What organelles are found in prokaryotes?
ribosomes, DNA, RNA, plasmids, smaller cells
What organelles are found in eukaryotes?
Mitochondria, Nucleus, Vacuole, Chloroplasts, Ribosomes, DNA, RNA, Genetic material enclosed in nuclear membrane, larger cells
What are plasmids?
Small circles of DNA that are found in bacteria and used to copy DNA during Genetic Engineering.
Cells which send impulses back and forth to brain and spinal cord.
Cells which flex & extend (contract) to allow movement.
Vascular cells that carry oxygen & nutrients & fight disease.
The male gamete
Vascular tissue in plants that carry water.
Vascular tissue in plants that carry food
Which parts of the DNA are activated during differentiation and what do they determine?
genes - they determine the function and specialize structure of a cell.
During the process of differentiation, are all parts of the DNA activated?
Do all cells in an organism contain the same DNA?
Do all cells initially have the potential to become any type of cell?
yes (initially or in the beginning they do)
What is the process in which the cell becomes specialized for its particular job?
Can cell differentiation be reversed?
Do all of the cells of a multicellular organism have exactly the same chromosomes?
Can chemical signals be released by one cell to influence the development and activity of another cell?
Give an example of chemical signals released by one cell to influence the development and activity of another cell?
insulin influences other cells to take in sugar from the blood
What is the name for cells which have not yet differentiated into various cell types?
List 3 types of Adult Stem Cells
bone marrow, blood, adipose (fat)
How are Embryonic stem cells different from Adult Stem Cells?
when embryonic stem cells are used, the embryo is destroyed. When adult stem cells are used, the adult can regenerate more.
What is a solution used to stabilize the pH of a liquid?
Which or your cells respond to maintain temperature and how do they do this?
sweat glands, hypothalamus
Which of your cells respond to maintain glucose levels and how do they do this?
pancreas, releases insulin and other hormones
Which of your cells respond to maintain water balance and how do they do this?
kidneys, filter water into and out of the blood stream
What are the mechanisms of active transport?
low to high concentration, ATP, against the concentration gradient
What are the mechanisms of passive transport?
diffusion, high to low concentration, osmosis, with the concentration gradient
the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration without energy being used from the cell
The movement of water from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across the cell membrane without energy being used from the cell
cell placed in this type of solution do not change size, little or no osmotic pressure builds up inside the cell, a red blood cell placed in solution that stimulates the blood stream
cells placed in this type of solution shrink, low osmotic pressure inside the cell, a red blood cell placed in salt water
high osmotic pressure inside the cell, a red blood cell placed in distilled water
List the 5 steps of the cell cycle in order
Which type of reproduction uses mitosis to form the cells?
doubled chromosomes become visible and the centrioles appear
chromosomes line up on the equator in the middle of the cell, spindle fibers have formed between the centrioles
sister chromatids have split at the centromere and are moving to opposite poles
chromosomes have arrived at opposite poles, cytokinesis (splitting of the cytoplasm begins)
Long whip-like tails that are used in locomotion, euglena, sperm cells
Extensions of the cytoplasm that are used in locomotion & nutrition, amoeba, some white blood cells
A photo-sensitive area that detects light. These allow euglena to be autotrophic and heterotrophic.
Pump excess water out of the cell. Found in many unicellular organisms such as paramecium to help maintain osmotic balance
Tiny hair-like projections that are used in locomotion & nutrition. Paramecium, cells that line our respiratory system
a movement toward/away from food molecules, poisons, etc.
a movement toward/away from light
What do nitrogen fixing bacteria convert in the nitrogen cycle?
Atmospheric nitrogen to nitrates that plants can use, we then eat the plants or eat animals that have eaten the plants to get our nitrogen
What 4 main elements make up proteins?
carb0n, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
Which 5 main elements make up nucleic acids?
carb0n, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorous
Why is the nitrogen cycle important in the synthesis of proteins and DNA?
We need Nitrogen to synthesize proteins and DNA since Nitrogen is found in protein and DNA
Describe the greenhouse effect. Relate it to sitting in a car on a hot sunny day.
Due to a layer of CO2 high in the atmosphere, heat gets trapped in our atmosphere, thus raising the temperature. This is similar to sitting in a car on a hot sunny day with the windows up. The heat of the sun gets into the car but cannot escape if the windows are up.
Describe natural environmental processes (relate to volcanic eruption and other geological processes)
volcanic eruptions and other geolocial processes add CO2 to the atmosphere naturally
Give 2 examples of matter being recycled.
Nutrients that are decomposed are used by plants for their processes. We then eat the plants or eat animals that have eaten plants and we use those same nutrients. Water is also constantly recycled in the water cycle. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are constantly recycled during the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.
Which 2 groups of organisms are responsible for decomposition?
fungi and bacteria
What is radiant energy?
energy from the sun
What is chemical energy?
Energy that has been stored as chemicals such as glucose stored as starch in plants.
How is radiant energy converted to chemical energy?
During photosynthesis plants take in sunlight and convert it into glucose
Which organisms are responsible for the conversion of radiant energy to chemical energy?
Producers/autotrophs - plants, protists
What is the name for the process of the conversion of radiant energy to chemical energy?
What are the end products of photosynthesis?
Glucose, oxygen, and sometimes water
Explain how energy flows through an ecosystem in relation to producers and consumers.
Producers convert energy from the sun during photosynthesis. When consumers eat the producers or other consumers that have eaten producers, they get their energy.
Which type of energy do ecosystems required a constant supply of?
Radiant energy from the sun
How do humans transport nutrients and waste?
Circulatory system (cardiovascular)
How do plants transport nutrients and waste?
Vascular system (xylem and phloem)
How do humans excrete waste?
Kidneys, lungs, sweat
How do plants excrete waste?
How do organisms maintain balances in pH?
Buffers (chemicals that maintain pH by releasing ions to solutions to either raise or lower the pH)
How do organisms maintain balances in salt?
How do organisms maintain balances in water?
Osmosis, excretion, nutrition
has xylem, phloem and vascular tissue
has no vascular tissue
Which organs does a human use for respiration?
Which parts do plants use for respiration?
Stomates allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen to leave
How is the releasing of gases related to cellular respiration?
Oxygen is needed for aerobic cellular respiration, carbon dioxide is released in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
List 3 autotrophs
plants, algae, cyanobacteria
List 3 heterotrophs
animals, fungi, some protists
meiosis, seeds, placental mammals
State how Sexual reproduction is different from asexual.
sexual involves sex cells from two parents, asexual involves on organism dividing by mitosis
What are eggs?
What does a seed contain?
What are spores?
single celled reproductive unit that can give rise to a new organism without sexual fusion
list 2 organisms that release spores
What is a placenta?
an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterus. The supplies nutrients, gas exchange, and water elimination.
Give 3 examples of placental mammals.
human, cow, dog
List innate behaviors
list learned behaviors
trial and error learning
Is imprinting an innate or learned behavior?
imprinting is a mixture of innate and learned behavior
an instinct of mammals that helps with feeding
insects moving towards light
instinctive seasonal movement of animals
reduced metabolism during intense heat
reduced metabolism during cold months
a learned behavior that occurs when an animal is repeatedly given a stimulus not associated with any punishment or reward
an animal forms a social attachment to another object
learning by association
trial and error learning
birds learn that grass/twigs make better nests than empty cans
both organisms benefit, trichonympha live in the guts of parasites and digest cellulose, lichens (algae and fungus)
one organism benefits and the other is harmed, tapeworms, bedbugs
define pheromones and give an example of how bees use them.
chemicals released by organisms for communication and mating. Queen bees release pheromones to tell the worker bees to maintain the hive, gather food, and take care of the developing larva.
Give an example of an organism that uses courtship dances
Give 2 other examples of territorial defense.
sea lions monitoring their part of the beach, cheetahs and wolves urinating to mark their territory
final stage of HIV disease which causes severe immune deficiency
seasonal infectious disease caused by an RNA virus
contagious bacterial infection that involves the lungs
Dutch Elm Disease
an introduced species caused by a fungus & spread by elm bark beetle
associated with harmful algal blooms and fish kills in NC
How is AIDS spread?
How is influenza spread?
How is tuberculosis (TB) spread?
How is Dutch Elm Disease spread?
How is pfiesteria spread?
direct contact with the toxins released by this organism
Does your risk of contracting AIDS, The Flu, and TB increase if you:
Are in frequent contact with people who have these diseases?
Does your risk of contracting AIDS, The Flu, and TB increase if you:
Have poor nutrition?
Does your risk of contracting AIDS, The Flu, and TB increase if you:
Live in crowded or unsanitary living conditions?
How does acid rain affect the mountains of North Carolina?
Red Spruce and Fraser Fir Trees are dead and dying due to acid rain. Acid rain leeches nutrients from leaves, acid rain combined with ozone can damage the waxy coating of needles and leaves. This can make the trees more susceptible to disease.
Is erosion a problem on NC beaches?
What are we doing to prevent erosion on NC beaches?
one example is building seawalls to help prevent erosion.
How is urban development in the Piedmont leading to habitat destruction/water runoff and what are some of the consequences?
According to the U.S. Census of Agriculture, North Carolina lost more than 600,000 acres of farmland from 2002 to 2007. The North Carolina Forestry Association says 1.1 million acres of forestland have been lost to development since 1990. Our population in the 2010 census was more than 9.5 million, an increase of 1.5 million in the first decade of the new millennium. That translates to a growth rate of 18.5 percent, the highest among Southeastern states. By 2030, our population is projected to exceed 12 million.
How are waste lagoons on hog farms affecting the environment?
In 1995 an eight-acre hog-waste lagoon in North Carolina burst, spilling 25 million gallons of manure into the New River. The spill killed about 10 million fish and closed 364,000 acres of coastal wetlands to shellfishing
What is the impact of humans on resource depletion?
If nothing changes, humanity will demand 140 billion tons of minerals, ores, fossil fuels and biomass every year by 2050. This is three times our current rate of resource consumption, and far beyond what the Earth can supply.
What is the impact of humans on deforestation?
loss of biodiversity
What is the impact of humans on pesticide use?
can lead to resistance in pests
What is the impact of humans on bioaccumulation?
causes accumulation of toxins as you go up the food chain
List 5 ways you can exemplify conservation methods and stewardship:
Preserving the plants, animals and natural communities through management of the lands and waters that we need to survive. Recycling one aluminum can saves enough electricity to run a television for 3 hours. In addition, we are not mining the Earth, destroying watershed or adding silt and toxic wastes to rivers by doing so. Recycling newspaper saves trees and the environment in a number of ways, including providing fish and bird habitats, cleaning CO2 and other greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, and keeping watersheds intact.
The structure of DNA is a ________ or "twisted ladder" structure.
The sides of DNA are composed of alternating ____________ groups.
The "rungs of the DNA ladder" are composed of complementary _______ base pairs.
Adenine (A) bonds with ______
Guanine (G) bonds with ________
Which type of weak bonds hold nitrogen bases together?
The sequence of nucleotides in DNA codes for ______, which is central key to cell function and life.
Replication occurs during the _____ of the cell cycle and allows daughter cells to have an exact copy of parental DNA.
Cells respond to their environments by producing different types and amounts of _______.
With few exceptions, all cells of an organism have the same DNA but differ based on the expression of ____.
How is injury repair related to the overproduction or underproduction of proteins?
an increase in proteins helps with injury repair
How is cancer related to the overproduction or underproduction of proteins?
Genes are the means by which a cell produces proteins, each of which have a very specific role. A mutated gene can cause overproduction of a protein, underproduction of a protein, or alteration of a protein that may be unable to carry out its purpose
produces an RNA copy of DNA, which is further modified into the three types of RNA
rRNA supplies appropriate amino acids
Amino acids are linked by ______ bonds to form polypeptides.
Polypeptide chains form _______ molecules.
Proteins can be _________ or _________.
structural (forming a part of the cell materials) or functional (hormones, enzymes, or chemicals involved in cell chemistry).
Explain how an amino acid sequence forms a protein that leads to a particular function and phenotype (trait) in an organism.
DNA sequences are arranged into genes. Genes express proteins, and that's what determines the phenotype.
What are mutations?
changes in DNA coding
list 3 types of mutations
deletion, additions, substitutions
a section of DNA is lost or deleted
an extra base is added
one base is substituted for another
list 3 mutagens that can also cause mutations
chemicals, radiation, UV light
how does changing an amino acid sequence change a protein and its function?
arrangement of amino acids determines the protein
What does this do to the phenotype?
proteins determine phenotypes so a change in amino acids can change the phenotype
heritable changes only result from mutations in _______ or _____
sperm or eggs
List 3 ways meiosis is different from mitosis.
1. meiosis forms gametes, mitosis deals with growth and repair of cells
2. Meiosis forms 4 cells with ½ the chromosome number of the parent cell, mitosis forms 2 cells with the same chromosome number as the parent cell
3. Two divisions occur during meiosis, one division occurs during mitosis
What occurs during prophase I of meiosis and why is it important?
crossing over provides genetic variety
Infer the importance of the genes being on separate chromosomes as it relates to meiosis.
This allows for genetic variation.
Explain how the process of meiosis leads to independent assortment and ultimately to greater genetic diversity.
Mendel's law of independent assortment states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes.
occurs during prophase I of meiosis - chromosomes exchange segments. This allows for genetic variation in chromosomes that are passed on to the gametes.
random assortment of chromosomes
this ensures that genes sort independently
some mutations cause changes in proteins and therefore cause a change in the phenotype
chromosomes do not separate properly during anaphase I or anaphase II of meiosis. This can create a gamete that has either too many chromosomes or not enough chromosomes.
this ensures that a new blending of genes will occur.
Explain sickle cell anemia's relationship to malaria due to incomplete dominance.
People that are heterozygous for Sickle Cell are immune to malaria so the gene has stayed in the gene pool.
Explain how two normal parents could have a child with cystic fibrosis.
Both of them could carry the recessive trait. In other words they would be heterozygous.
What are some of the symptoms of Huntington's disease?
late onset (people don't show symptoms until their 40s), it is a brain disorder that causes uncontrolled movements, emotional problems, and loss of thinking ability
Why are males more likely to express a sex-linked trait?
because they have only 1 X chromosome
What are used cut DNA into different sized fragments?
Which fragments move more slowly, the long ones or the short ones?
Generalize what shared anatomical structures (homologies) tell us about evolution.
They tell us that those organisms possibly came from common ancestors.
Who developed the concept of natural selection?
Explain why some bacteria are resistant to antibiotics.
Due to over-use of antibiotics and people not taking the full course of antibiotics when instructed, the weaker bacteria die and the stronger bacteria survive and are resistant to certain antibiotics
How many kingdoms of organisms did the first classification system (Aristotle and Linnaeus) have and what where the categories?
2 - plants and animals
How many kingdoms did the next classification system have and what where the categories?
5 - Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists, Bacteria
How many kingdoms are in the current classification system?
6 (and they're working on a 7th)
Which kingdom was split from the previous system?
bacteria was split into eubacteria and archaebacteria
Which category is now above a kingdom and how many are there?
Domains - 3 - Eukarya, Archaea, Bacteria
What is the function of glucose?
What is the function of cellulose and where is it found?
structure in the cell walls of plants
Where is starch stored in plants?
roots and stem
What is glycogen and how is it related to starch?
glycogen is excess glucose that is stored in the liver or animals (plants store their glucose as starch)
What is the function of insulin and where is it produced?
insulin causes your cells to absorb sugar from the blood. It is produced in the pancreas.
What is the function of enzymes?
biological catalysts that speed up and lower activation energy of chemical reactions
What is the function of hemoglobin and where is it found?
hemoglobin helps your red bloods cells carry oxygen in the blood
What is the function of phospholipids/where are they found?
along with proteins, phospholipids make up the bi-layer structure of cell membranes
Why are steroids important to our bodies?
many of our hormones are steroid hormones. Cholesterol is another example of a steroid we have in our bodies. A lot of the other steroids we have in our bodies are derived from cholesterol.
What is the function/purpose of DNA?
DNA is our genetic code.
What is the function/purpose of RNA?
RNA helps with protein synthesis
List the five nitrogenous bases found in nucleic acids.
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil
Which organisms perform photosynthesis?
plants, algae, cyanobacteria
Which organelles are involved in photosynthesis?
Which organisms perform cellular respiration?
Which organelles are involved in cellular respiration?
cytoplasm and mitochondria
How is anaerobic respiration different from aerobic respiration?
anaerobic occurs in the absence of oxygen
What is another name for anaerobic respiration?
In which organisms does lactic acid fermentation occur?
muscle cells of animals
In which organisms does alcoholic fermentation occur?
How many ATP are produced in aerobic respiration compared to anaerobic respiration?
36 are produced in aerobic, 2 are produced during anaerobic.
Why do cells use active transport?
sometimes there are chemicals that they need or need to rid of, but those chemicals are in a lower concentration compared to where they need to go.
What do cells need in order to perform active transport?
List 1 thing cells rid of during active transport and give an example of this in your body.
In the human body, active transport takes place in the small intestine during digestion of food. The kidneys use active transport to move urea and nitrogen from the blood. low concentration of urea in the blood to a higher concentration in the kidneys.
List 3 reasons why organisms use the process of locomotion.
food, escape from predators, find mates, find shelter
List 3 molecules that your body is synthesizing right now.
protein, DNA, enzymes
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