Chapter 7 Chemistry Study Guide

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Terms in this set (...)

chemical bond
the force that holds 2 atoms together
cation
positively charged ion
ionic bond
a force that holds together atoms that are oppositely charged
ionic compounds
compounds that contain ionic bonds
crystal lattice
a 3-D geometric arrangement of particles in an ionic solid
eletrolyte
an ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts an electric current
lattice energy
the energy required to separate 1 mole of the ions of an ionic compound which is directly related to the side of the ions bonded and is also affected by the charge of the ions
formula unit
the simplest ratio of the ions involved
monatomic ion
1 atom ion; indicates the charges of common monatomic ions according to their location on the periodic table
oxidation #
the charge of a monatomic ion, equals the number of electrons transferred from the atom to the ion
polyatomic ions
ions made up of more than 1 atom
oxyanion
a polyatomic ion composed of an element, usually a nonmetal, bonded to 1 or more oxygen atoms
electron sea model
proposes that all the metal atom is a metallic solid contribute their valence electrons to form a "sea" of electrons
delocalized electrons
the electrons involved in metallic bonding that are free to move easily from one atom to the next throughout the metal & aren't attached to a particular atom
metallic bond
the attraction of a metallic cation for delocalized electrongs
alloy
a mixture of elements that has metallic properties
noble gases
a family of elements that have very little tendency to react
octet rule
when an element has the full 8 outer electrons -- making it stable & less reactive
pseudo-noble gas formations
the relatively stable electron structures developed by loss of electrons in certain elements of groups 3,4, 13 & 14
-ide
used to designate an anion
the overall charge of a formula unit for an ionic compound is ______
always zero
ionic compounds generally occur between____
metal & nonmetals
what is the relationship between lattice energy & the strength of the attractive force holding ions in place?
the more negative the lattice energy, the greater the force
the formation of a stable ionic compound from ions_____
may be either exothermic or endothermic
the crystal lattice of ionic compounds affects their ______ & _____ _______
melting & boiling points
what is lattice energy?
the energy required to separate the ions of an ionic compound
ions with larger charges produce a more _____ lattice energy than ions with smaller charges
negative
the name for the ion with more oxygen atoms end with____
-ate
the name for the ion with fewer oxygen atoms end with_____
-ite
the order in the chemical formula for any ionic compound_______
the cation is written first, followed by the chemical symbol of the anion
what is the name of the model of metallic bonding?
electron sea model
why are the electrons in a metallic solid described as delocalized?
they aren't attached to 1 atom
which electrons from the metal make up the delocalized electrons?
the valence electrons
How can you tell if the metal atoms shown are cations or anions?
if there is a positive nucleus or not
How do the metallic ions differ from the ions that exist in ionic solids?
they aren't in rigid crystal lattice structure containing anions & cations -- not losing or gaining
Explain what holds the metal atoms together in the solid
the nuclei structure & constant movement of delocalized valence electrons
is a metal malleable? why?
yes; delocalized electrons make it easy to shift
is a metal brittle? why?
no
is a metal lustrous? why?
yes; they're shiny
do metals have high or low boiling points? why?
no
do metals have high or low melting points? why?
high melting point; strong
are metals ductile? why?
yes; delocalized electrons are easy to shift
are metals good or poor conductors of heat?
good
are metals good or poor conductors of electricity?
good; electrons move freely
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