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23 terms

Genetics Vocabulary

Terms used in the study of genetics
STUDY
PLAY
heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
trait
a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes
genetics
The scientific study of heredity
purebred
the offspring of many generations that have the same traits
gene
the section of a chromosome that controls a trait
alleles
the different forms of a gene
dominant allele
an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
recessive allele
an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
hybrid
an organism that has two different alleles for a trait
probability
the likelihood that a particular event will occur
punnett square
a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross.
phenotype
physical characteristics of an organism
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
homozygous
having two identical alleles for a trait
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait
codominance
occurs when both alleles for a gene are expressed in a heterozygous offspring
meiosis
the process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells
mutation
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
sex-linked trait
Characteristic such as red-green color blindness, controlled by genes on the X chromosome also called an X linked trait.
carrier
a person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does not have the trait
genetic disorder
an inherited disease or disorder that is caused by a mutation in a gene or by a chromosomal defect
pedigree
A chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
karyotype
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs