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Terms used in the study of genetics


the passing of traits from parents to offspring


a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes


The scientific study of heredity


the offspring of many generations that have the same traits


the section of a chromosome that controls a trait


the different forms of a gene

dominant allele

an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present

recessive allele

an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present


an organism that has two different alleles for a trait


the likelihood that a particular event will occur

punnett square

a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross.


physical characteristics of an organism


genetic makeup of an organism


having two identical alleles for a trait


having two different alleles for a trait


occurs when both alleles for a gene are expressed in a heterozygous offspring


the process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells


a random error in gene replication that leads to a change

sex-linked trait

Characteristic such as red-green color blindness, controlled by genes on the X chromosome also called an X linked trait.


a person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does not have the trait

genetic disorder

an inherited disease or disorder that is caused by a mutation in a gene or by a chromosomal defect


A chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait


A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs

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