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NCLEX information review: Pediatrics
Terms in this set (35)
What is growth?
Increase in size
What is development?
Increase in capability or function
Does not always follow growth and chronological age
What is cephalocaudal development?
Development that moves from the head downward through the body and towards the feet
What is proximodistal development?
Development that moves from the center of the body outward to the extremities
When does anterior fontanel close?
When does posterior fontanel close?
Why are new foods introduced to infants one at a time?
Immature GI tract
Why are peanuts so dangerous when aspirated?
When wet, they swell and crumble
When giving IM injections, why is the ventrogluteal muscle contraindicated in children who have not been walking for at least a year?
Muscle is not developed well enough
When viewing the auditory canal in the round child, how is the earlobe positioned?
Down and back (<3yo)
What is the most common reason for failed toilet training?
How many cups of milk should a 15 month old toddler consume daily?
At what age does the best friend stage occur?
What are the leading causes of death from accidental injury in infants up to 1 year of age?
Between the ages of 6 and 12, what is the major cause of severe accidental injury?
What happens to growth rate between 6 and 12 years old?
A school age child requires, on average, how many calories per day?
How do newborns (birth-1 mo) communicate?
Express themselves through crying
Respond to human voice and presence
Touch has positive effect
How do infants (1 mo-12 mos) communicate?
Communicate through crying and facial expressions
Attentive to human voice and presence, minimal comprehension of words
Responds to touch through patting, rocking, and stroking
How do toddlers and preschoolers (1-5 years) communicate?
Evolving verbal skills
Use language to express thoughts
Short attention span
Express themselves through dramatic play and drawing
How do school-age children (6-12 years) communicate?
Able to use logic
Begin to understand others POV
Begin to understand cause and effect
Developing an understanding of body functions
Receptive and expressive language more balanced
Can interpret nonverbal messages
Express thoughts and feelings
How do adolescents (13-18 years) communicate?
Abstract thinking w/o full adult comprehension
Interpretation of med terms is limited
Strive for independence
Trust and understanding build rapport
Need for privacy
What are observable signs of respiratory distress in children?
Use of accessory muscles
Grunting with respirations
What is laryngotracheobronchitis?
A viral infection that can result in:
Steam from hot showers
Cool temp therapy
Nebulized epinephrine or corticosteroids
What is epiglottis?
Caused by H-flu
Prevent with Hib vax
A serious obstructive inflammatory process
Absence of cough
Presence of dysphagia
Rapid progression to severe respiratory distress
Never try to visualize throat
What is RSV?
Leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness in children less than 2 yo
Caused by acute viral infection that affects bronchioles
Can be life-threatening in infants
Nonproductive paroxysmal cough
Tachypnea with flaring nose
Dyspnea and retractions
Worse at 2-3 days
Mild: Tx s/s, antipyretics
Severe: IVF, Albuterol, antipyretics, suction, oxygen
What is pneumonia?
Disease marked by inflammation of the lungs
Fine crackles or rhonchi
Decreased-absent breath sounds over affected lung
Back or abdominal pain
What is cleft palate/lip?
A orofacial defect that affects oropharynx and increases risk of malnutrition and aspiration
Use elongated nipple/medicine dropper
Will fix lip first (protect suture line)
Position supine/side lying following lip repair
Will fix palate before speech develops
What is GERD?
A disorder characterized by backwash or reflux of gastric contents into esophagus
Use upright positioning with feeding and 30mins after
What is pyloric stenosis?
This disorder results in projectile vomiting during/after a feeding
Dx by abdominal US
Hydration and electrolyte replacement
Monitor urine specific gravity
What is intussusception?
Name for the condition where a piece of bowel telescopes in on itself forming an obstruction
Drawing up of knees
Episodes of pain
Current jelly stools
Can do enema or surgery
What is Hirschsprung's disease?
A congenital anomaly also known as aganglionic megacolon that results in a mechanical obstruction. Usually affects the sigmoid colon
Presenting s/s is constipation
Ribbon-like stools with foul smell
Tx with surgery
What is head lice?
Common problem which the main symptom os scalp itching
Spread through direct contact
Tx with antiparasitic meds
What are pin worms?
Primary symptom is intense anal itching with general irritability, restlessness, poor sleep, bed wetting, distractibility, short attention span
Spread hand to mouth
Good hand washing
Keep fingernails short
What is infectious mononucleosis?
Swollen lymph nodes
Liver and/or spleen enlargement
Caused by Epstein Barr
Spread through direct intimate contact
Rest, analgesics, increased fluids, good nutrition
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