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Friends Seminary APUSH Unit 7
Terms in this set (82)
Farming became more mechanized. As a result, large companies started to do the "farming" using advanced machinery. Large wheat "bonanza" farms would supply enormous amounts of food and grow into future agribusiness.
Texas longhorn cattle were trekked north, where they could be sold for much more. Often caused tension between farmers as a result of trespassing and grazing on cropland.
Indian and Mexican cowboys, known as vaqueros, tended the hers and rounded up cattle to be branded and slaughtered.
Prospectors went to western terrain in search of gold, silver, copper, and other minerals. Because digging up and transporting minerals was expensive, prospectors sold their claims to large mining syndicates instead. These big companies used heavy machinery, railroad lines, and work crew, making mining a corporate business.
People who received land grants at little or no cost in return for building a house there, living and farming there for at least five years.
Battle of Wounded Knee
last battle of the American Indian Wars, which took place near Wounded Knee Creek near South Dakota. An attempt to disarm a band of Sioux led to a shot being fired. After that, the army shot and massacred the Sioux, killing around 200 of the Native Americans.
Battle of Little Bighorn
an armed engagement between combined forces of Lakota, Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes, against the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army. It was an overwhelming victory for the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho.
The US government granted railroad corporations over 180 million acres, which railroads sold for cash to construct rail lines.
Money or credit given to buyers after they paid the full price. Railroads gave rebates to important customers in secret to undercut competition by securing large freight orders.
Long v short haul
a long journey by train (example: NY to OKC) vs. a short, city-to-city journey (example: NY to Philly). Since there were no laws regulating shipping costs, companies could charge the same for short hauls as they could for long hauls.
John D. Rockefeller
A rich capitalist who monopolized the oil industry
A rich capitalist who monopolized the steel industry
A rich capitalist who monopolized the train industry
A rich capitalist who dominated the investment banking business
James J. Hill
a Canadian-American railroad executive. He was the chief executive officer of a family of lines headed by the Great Northern Railway, which served a substantial area of the Upper Midwest, the northern Great Plains, and Pacific Northwest. Because of the size of this region and the economic dominance exerted by the Hill lines, Hill became known during his lifetime as The Empire Builder.
a prolific 19th-century American author, best known for his many formulaic juvenile novels about impoverished boys and their rise from humble backgrounds to lives of middle-class security and comfort through hard work, determination, courage, and honesty. His writings were characterized by the "rags-to-riches" narrative, which had a formative effect on America during the Gilded Age. his name is often invoked incorrectly as though he himself rose from rags to riches, but that arc applied to his characters, not to him.
a nurse; social worker; public health official; teacher; author; editor; publisher; activist for peace, women's, children's and civil rights; and the founder of American community nursing. Her unselfish devotion to humanity is recognized around the world and her visionary programs have been widely copied.
a pioneer settlement worker, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in woman suffrage and world peace. Beside presidents such as Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson, she was the most prominent reformer of the Progressive Era and helped turn the nation to issues of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, public health, and world peace. a role model for middle-class women who volunteered to uplift their communities. In 1931 she became the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
...a settlement house in the United States that was co-founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. Located in the Near West Side of Chicago, Illinois, Hull House (named for the home's first owner) opened its doors to the recently arrived European immigrants
...a Christian denomination and international movement known for its charity shops and other charity work, operating in 126 countries
...Young Men's Christian Association, a worldwide organization with more than 58 million beneficiaries from 125 national associations
...an English-born American cigar maker who became a labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL), and served as that organization's president from 1886 to 1894 and from 1895 until his death in 1924
...a list or register of entities who, for one reason or another, are being denied a particular privilege, service, mobility, access or recognition. As a verb, to blacklist can mean to deny someone work in a particular field, or to ostracize a person from a certain social circle. Conversely, a whitelist is a list or compilation identifying entities that are accepted, recognized, or privileged.
Yellow Dog Contracts
...an agreement between an employer and an employee in which the employee agrees, as a condition of employment, not to be a member of a labor union
Closed/ Open shop
... a form of union security agreement under which the employer agrees to hire union members only, and employees must remain members of the union at all times in order to remain employed (closed shop). a place of employment at which one is not required to join or financially support a union (open shop).
...also known as a walkout, a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to perform work
...an act of voluntarily abstaining from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for political reasons. It can be a form of consumer activism.
the period following the Civil War, roughly from the end of Reconstruction in 1877 to the turn of the twentieth century. The Gilded Age was a time of enormous growth that attracted millions from Europe. Railroads were the major industry, but the factory system, mining, and labor unions also gained in importance. The growth was interrupted by major nationwide depressions known as the Panic of 1873 and the Panic of 1893. Most of the growth and prosperity came in only the former Union states of North and West. The South, of the defeated Confederate States of America, remained economically devastated; its economy became increasingly tied to cotton and tobacco production, which suffered low prices. African Americans in the south experienced the worst setbacks, as they were stripped of political power and voting rights. The political landscape was notable in that despite rampant corruption, turnout was high and elections between the evenly matched parties were close. The dominant issues were rights for Black Americans, tariff policy and monetary policy.
an economic environment in which transactions between private parties are free from tariffs, government subsidies, and enforced monopolies, with only enough government regulations sufficient to protect property rights against theft and aggression. Scholars generally believe a laissez-faire state or a completely free market has never existed.
Vertical/ Horizontal Integration
Horizontal integration created monopolies within a particular industry, the best-known example being Standard Oil, created by John D. Rockefeller. In horizontal integration, several smaller companies within the same industry are combined to form one, larger company, either by being bought out legally or by being destroyed through ruthless business practices such as cutthroat competition or pooling agreements. Many of these business practices are illegal today because of antitrust legislation passed at the turn of the last century. Vertical integration remains legal, however, provided the company does not become either a trust or a holding company, but rather allows other companies in the same industry to survive and compete in the marketplace. In vertical integration, one company buys out all the factors of production, from raw materials to finished product.
an organization of corporations where stockholders have trade their stocks for trust certificates
an alliance of competing companies to set prices and split profits by sharing customers
refers to the practice of members of a corporate board of directors serving on the boards of multiple corporations.
A holding company owned enough stock in various companies to have a controlling interest in the production of raw material, the means of transporting that material to a factory, the factory itself, and the distribution network for selling the product. The logical conclusion is a monopoly, or complete control of an entire industry. One holding company, for example, gained control of 98% of the sugar refining plants in the United States.
Robber Barons v. Captains of Industry
Robber barons is a derogatory term applied to wealthy and powerful 19th century American businessmen. By the late 1800's, the term was typically applied to businessmen who used what were considered to be exploitative practices to amass their wealth. A Captain of industry was a business leader whose means of amassing a personal fortune contributes positively to the country in some way.
Gospel of Wealth
an article written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889 that describes the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich. The central thesis of Carnegie's essay was the peril of allowing large sums of money to be passed into the hands of persons or organizations ill-equipped mentally or emotionally to cope with them.
As a result, the wealthy entrepreneur must assume the responsibility of distributing his fortune in a way that it will be put to good use, and not wasted on frivolous expenditure. In this he represented a captain of industry who had risen to power by his own hand.
a term used for various late nineteenth century ideologies predicated on the idea of survival of the fittest. It especially refers to notions of struggle for existence being used to justify social policies which make no distinction between those able to support themselves and those unable to support themselves. The most prominent form of such views stressed competition between individuals in laissez-faire capitalism but it is also connected to the ideas of the progressive era, in which many promoted eugenics or scientific racism or imperialism, or a struggle between national or racial groups.
Munn v. Illinois
This was a supreme court case dealing with corporate rates and agriculture. This case allows states to regulate certain business within their borders, such as railroads. It said business interests used for the public good could be regulated by the government
Wabash v. Illinois
This case severely limited the rights of states to control interstate commerce. It led to the creation of the interstate commerce committee.
Interstate Commerce Act
This was an Act based for the federal government to regulate the railroad business and its monopolistic practices. The Act required that railroad rates be reasonable and it stopped short haul/long haul discrimination. This Act created the interstate commerce committee.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
act that said "any combination or condition which is in restraint of trade is illegal." It was used for what people wanted it to be used for. Technically Unions fell under this category.
This building is a standard multi-family dwelling in an urban core that is very old usually inhabited by the poor.
Old. V. New Immigrants
Old Immigrants is in the 1800s when the Irish and the Norse would come to America while the new is people from eastern europe and Italians who do not speak any english.
This groups core beliefs were that the ownership of the means of production was the only solution to exploitative nature of the wage labor system. There actions were geared towards labor and social agitation. The leader was Eugene Debs.
This strike was results of wages being cut in the midst of a depression. It was led by Eugene Debs and the American Railroad Union. Grover Cleveland sent in troops in the hopes of quelling the strike.
This is an organization that promotes families to come together to support the well being of the community and their agriculture. raised awareness about agricultural innovations and bonded farmers social and cultural. ended up becoming a big political force.
This was an organized agrarian movements in 1880s promoting agriculture made up of farmers. One of the goals of the movement was to end the crop-lien system. The alliance supported more government intervention.
An anti-monopoly party that wanted to use non-gold backed paper money (greenbacks). They were associated with Grange and supported the 8-hour workday. They faded away by 1884 but their basic program was reborn as the Populist Party
This party sided with "the people" against "the elites." This party was based among farmers, although it also sided with unions. In 1896, William Bryan was a "fusion" presidential candidate of the Democrats' party and this party.
The Bland-Allison Act was an 1878 act of Congress requiring the U.S. Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. Though the bill was vetoed by President Rutherford B. Hayes, the Congress overrode Hayes' veto on February 28, 1878 to enact the law. -wiki
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
(1890) The Sherman Silver Purchase Act did not authorize the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the Free Silver supporters wanted. However, it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month to $4.5 million ounces of Silver each month.
Gold Standard Act (1900)
...The Gold Standard Act of the United States was passed in 1900 (approved on March 14) and established gold as the only standard for redeeming paper money, stopping bimetallism (which had allowed silver in exchange for gold). It was signed by President William McKinley. Dropped in 1933.
Civil Service (Pendleton) Act
Law established in 1883 that stipulated that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit. The act provided selection of government employees by competitive exams, rather than ties to politicians or political affiliation. It also made it illegal to fire or demote government employees for political reasons and prohibits soliciting campaign donations on Federal government property.
The Mugwumps were Republican political activists who bolted from the United States Republican Party by supporting Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the United States presidential election of 1884. They switched parties because they rejected the financial corruption associated with Republican candidate James G. Blaine. In a close election, the Mugwumps supposedly made the difference in New York state and swung the election to Cleveland.
A boss, in politics, is a person who wields the power over a particular political region or constituency. Bosses may dictate voting patterns, control appointments, and wield considerable influence in other political processes. They do not necessarily hold public office themselves. In fact, most historical bosses did not, at least during the times of their greatest influence.
He was an American politician most notable for being the "boss" of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the politics of 19th century New York City and State. At the height of his influence, Tweed was the third-largest landowner in New York City, a director of the Erie Railroad, the Tenth National Bank, and the New-York Printing Company, as well as proprietor of the Metropolitan Hotel.
Marcus Alonzo "Mark" Hanna (September 24, 1837 - February 15, 1904) was a Republican United States Senator from Ohio and the friend and political manager of President William McKinley. Hanna had made millions as a businessman, and used his money and business skills to successfully manage McKinley's presidential campaigns in 1896 and 1900.
Thomas Nast (September 27, 1840 - December 7, 1902) was a German-born American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist who is considered to be the "Father of the American Cartoon". He was the scourge of Boss Tweed and the Tammany Hall political machine. Among his notable works were the creation of the modern version of Santa Claus and the political symbol of the elephant for the Republican Party
WIlliam Randolph Hearst
American newspaper publisher. Whipped up public sentiment through big headlines and exaggeration -- apparently his reporting contributed to the start of the Spanish-American war.
Hungary-born newspaper publisher who helped establish the pattern of the modern newspaper (e.g., adding sports and comics, making newspapers vehicles of entertainment, not just information).
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882: Signed into law by Chester A Arthur, prohibits Chinese immigration to the US for ten years. First act passed excluding any group from immigrating.
Depression of 1893
Like 1873, resulted from railroad overbuilding and unstable railroad financing (money lent by banks). When the RR companies failed, banks failed, and things spiraled down from there.
William Jennings Bryan
Election of 1896: nominated by both the Democrats and the Populists, early proponent of free silver coinage as opposed to the gold standard. Loses to William McKinley (Republican nominee).
Credit Mobilier Scandal
During Grant presidency, construction company in association with (secretly owned by) Union Pacific Railroad company. Repeatedly declared more profits were being made than actually were in order to influence stock price.
Republicans in second half of 19th century who opposed civil service reform. Supported Ulysses S Grant when he ran for a third term.
Fraction of the Republican Party that emerged by 1880 led by James G Blaine; favored reform; against patronage; claimed to represent
the idea of civil service reform.
A protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United States history to that time. Officially named the Commonweal in Christ, its nickname came from its leader and was more enduring. It was the first significant popular protest march on Washington and the expression "Enough food to feed Coxey's Army" originates from this march.
2nd School of American Literature
School which taught the importance and techniques used in American Literature and what defined the American novel
Missouri-born author; leapt to fame with The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County (1867); teamed up with Charles Dudney Warner in 1873 to write The Gilded Age which gave a name to the era; he typified a new breed of American authors in revolt against the elegant refinements of the old New England school of writing; wrote The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in 1884; England's Oxford University awarded him an honorary degree in 1907
An American novelist, short story writer, poet and journalist. Themes in work driven by Naturalistic and Realistic concerns, including ideals versus realities, spiritual crises and fear. The most famous of these was The Red Badge of Courage.
poet; poetry wasn't published when she was alive (only two were and those were without her consent); wrote over a thousand short lyrics on scraps of paper
Industrialisation's Effect on Workers
By 1880, 50% of Americans worked in agriculture
class divisions became the most pronounced in US history during this period
farmers lost ground
depressions and recessions led to unrest
the process by which employees and management negotiate wages, working conditions, and work hours
Railroad Strike of 1877
large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men
US v. EC Knight Co.
(1895) Congress wanted to bust a trust because it controled 98% of sugar manufacturing. Supreme court said no because it wasn't interstate commerce which they do have the right to regulate. Severely weakened the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroad
commissioned by Congress to thrust westward from Omaha, Nebraska; for each mile of track constructed, the company was granted 20 square miles of land and a generous federal loan ranging from $16,000 to $48,000.
Dawes Act of 1887
attempt to "americanize" the indians giving each tribe 160 acres; after 25 years this property would become theirs (if they were good little whites) and they would become an american citizen
The Pendleton Act of 1883
federal legislation that created a system in which federal employees were chosen based upon competitive exams. This made job positions based on merit or ability and not inheritance or class. It also created the Civil Service Commission.
bolstered the regulatory powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission and supported labor reforms. It gave the ICC the power to prosecute its own inquiries into violations of its regulations.
System of credit used in poor rural south- merchants in small country stores provided necessary goods on credit in return for a mortgage on the crop
Impact of Immigration
helped make unskilled labor cheap and plentiful; steel, the keystone industry, built its strength largely on the sweat of low-priced immigrant labor from eastern and southern Europe (working in twelve-hour shifts every week)
Billion Dollar Congress
its lavish spending incited drastic reversals in public support that led to Cleveland's reelection in 1892. Other important legislation passed into law by the Congress included the McKinley tariff, authored by Representative (and future President) William McKinley; the Sherman Antitrust Act, which prohibited business combinations that restricted trade; and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, which required the U.S. government to mint silver.
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