Social Process in which individuals employ symbols to establish and interpret meaning in their environment.
Linear Model of Communication
One-way view of communication that assumes a message is sent by a source to a receiver through a channel.
Interactional Model of Communication
View of communication as the sharing of meaning with feedback that links the sender and receiver.
Transactional Model of Communication
View of communication as the simultaneous sending and receiving of messages.
-Arbitrary label given to a phenomenon
-concrete symbol represents an object (cat)
-abstract symbol represents an idea (love)
The perceived rightness or wrongness of actions or behavior and determining what is right or wrong is influenced by society's rules and laws.
In communication ethical issues surface whenever messages potentially influence others.
-persuasion, public speaking
Ex) State of the Union Address
-study of signs, interpretation of signs and symbols
-meaning is achieved when we share a common language
Ex) Ring=married Crying=sad
-A personal interpretation of everyday life and activities
-Experiencing otherness by eliminating biases in a conversation
Ex) people who have different points of view or back round.
-Emphasizes information processing as an information science
-Broader systematic viewpoint of communication
-There are different levels of ability
-Cause -> Effect
-Behavior is influenced by one or more variables
-Uses experiments and surveys
-Language structures a persons reality
-Our everyday interactions with others depend heavily on preexisting, shared cultural patterns and social constructs.
-social order and reality are co-created
-Emphasized advocacy of fairness, concern for injustice, oppression
Ex) Karl Marx
Communication with oneself
Ex) Impression formation and decision making; symbols and meaning; observations and attributions; ego involvement and persuasion
Face-to face communication
Ex) Relationship maintenance strategies; relational intimacy; relationship control; interpersonal attraction
Communication within a group of people
Ex) Gender and group leadership; group vulnerability; groups and stories; group decision making; task difficulty
Communication within and among large and extended environments
Ex) Organizational hierarchy and power; culture and organizational life; employee morale, opinions and worker satisfaction
Communication to a large audience
Ex) Communication apprehension; delivery effectiveness; speech and text criticism; ethical speechmaking; popular culture analysis
Communication to a very large audience through mediated forms
Ex) Use of media; affiliation and television programming; television and values; media and need fulfillment; effects of social networking sites
Communication between and among members of different cultures
Ex) Culture and rule setting; culture and anxiety; hegemony; ethnocentrism
An abstract system of concepts and their relationship that help us to understand a phenomenon
1. Level of generality
-grand: applies to a lot of people as a whole (quantitative)
-mid-range: applies to a group but not everyone
-narrow: applies to a very small group (qualitative)
-concepts: elements of the theory
-nominal: not observable (love, friendship)
-relationships: how concepts are connected
-linear, interactive, transactional
Theory and Experience
Abstract theory enables us to understand concrete experiences and observations, and that a theory itself is capable of being modified by an observation. Our concrete experiences and observations are interpreted by us through the lens offered by the theory we are using.
Covering law approach
Seeks to explain an event in the real world by referring to a general law. Researchers believe that communication behavior is governed by forces that are predictable and generalizable.
A guideline for creating theory that builds human choices into explanations. Human behavior is a result of free choice, and humans engage in intentional goal oriented behavior.
-habitual: nonnegotiable rules that are usually created by an authority figure.
-parametric: rules that are set by an authority figure but are subject to some negotiation
-tactical: unstated rules used to achieve a personal or interpersonal goal.
MOST AMOUNT OF FREE CHOICE
A guideline for creating theory that acknowledges human choice and the constraints of the systems involved.
Requires systematic nonuniversal, generalizations, does not depend on inductive reasoning, separates the logical from the empirical, allows alternative explanations for the same phenomenon and permits partial explanations.
Assumes that objective truths can be uncovered and that the process of inquiry that discovers these truths can be. at least in part, value neutral.
An empirical researcher strives to be objective and works for control, over the important concepts in the theory.
Views truth as subjective and co-created by the participants. with the researcher clearly one of the participants.
An approach stressing the researchers responsibility to change the inequalities in the status quo.
Researchers believe that those in power shape knowledge in ways that work to perpetuate the status quo and want to resolve power imbalances to give voice to the silenced.
Powerful people work to keep themselves in power.
The traditional method for doing research involving controlled observations and analysis to test the principles of a theory.
Focused examination within a context of interest; may be guided by the hypothesis or research question.
The raw materials collected by the researcher to answer the question posed in the research or to test a hypothesis.
The range of behaviors covered by the theory.
The more people- Quantitative
The less people- Qualitative
The ability to investigate a theory's accuracy. If you cant test for it, it is just an idea.