HOSA Physical Therapy- Musculoskeletal

HOSA Physical Therapy Aide- Physical Therapy for Musculoskeletal Conditions
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Terms in this set (...)

dysfunction
any functional disability; PT determines the cause and extent of these
Range of Motion (ROM)
movement at a joint
Bursitis
inflammation of bursae; commonly occurs at the shoulder to the subacromial bursa
Bursae
fluid-filled sacs throughout the body that decrease friction between structures
Tendinopathy
disorders of the tendons
Tendinitis
inflammation of the tendon
Tendinosis
degeneration of the tendon by overuse
Nerve entrapment
pressure on a nerve
Ligament
supporting structure at joins that serve to stabilize the joint and prevent excess movement
Sprain
injury to a ligament (overstretching or tearing); commonly at ankle where lateral ligaments are overstretched
Fracture
break in a bone; commonly in the wrist or the hip
Strain
injury to a muscle
Subjective examination
interview of the patient about the extent and nature of an injury; a qualitative measurement based on the patient's perception of the problem
Objective examination
Measurements taken by physical therapist/assistant or by mechanical device
Active Range of Motion (AROM)
The ability of the patient to voluntarily move a limb through an arc of movement
Passive Range of Motion (PROM)
amount of movement at a joint obtained by therapist moving the segment without assistance from the patient
Hypomobile joint
joint has less motion than is considered functional
Hypermobile joint
joint subluxation, joint has excessive motion
Goniometry
methods to measure and document ROM
Goniometer
instrument used to measure and document ROM
Strength
the amount of force produced during a voluntary muscular contraction
Resisted test
allows therapist to determine general strength of a muscle group and assess whether any pain is produced with the muscle contraction
Manual Muscle Testing (MMT)
allows therapist to assign specific grade to a muscle, based on whether patient can hold the limb against gravity, how much manual resistance can be tolerated and whether joint has full ROM
Flexibility
ability to move a limb segment through a specific ROM
Accessory motion
ability of joint surfaces to glide, roll and spin on each other
Special tests
examine specific joints to indicate the presence or absence of a particular problem
Thermal agents
used to modify the temperature of surrounding tissue and result in a change of the amount of blood flow to the injured area (superficial heat, deep heat, cold)
Hot pack
pouch filled with silica gel and soaked in thermostatically controlled water
Paraffin treatment
mixture of melted paraffin wax and mineral oil at a specific temperature promotes relaxation and pain relief
Fluidotherapy
self-contained unit filled with sawdust-type particles heated to the desired temperature and circulated by air pressure around the involved body part
Hydrotherapy
use of the therapeutic effects of water by immersing body part or entire body into a tank of water
Whirlpool
tank of water used in hydrotherapy for immersing a body part or the entire body
Ultrasound
application of high-frequency sound waves that penetrate tissue and increase tissue temperature
Short-wave diathermy
use electromagnetic energy to produce deep therapeutic heating effects
Cryotherapy
therapeutic use of cold agents to decrease blood flow, metabolism, swelling and pain
electrical stimulation
application of electricity at specified locations to stimulate nerves, muscles, and other soft tissues to reduce pain and swelling, increase strength and ROM and facilitate wound healing
Soft tissue mobilization
a variety of hands-on techniques designed to improve movement and function
Massage
systematic use of various manual strokes to produce certain physiological, mechanical and psychological effects
Swedish massage strokes
promote relaxation by decreasing pain or swelling, relieving tension and improving the metabolism of surrounding tissue
Transverse friction massage
improves flexibility and function of soft tissues like muscles, ligaments, and tendons
Myofascial release
manual stretching of the layers of the body's fascia
Fascia
connective tissue that surrounds muscle and other soft tissue in the body
Joint mobilization and manipulation
technique used when a patient's dysfunction is result of joint stiffness or hypomobility; applies specific passive movement to a joint, either oscillatory (rapid, repeated movement) or sustained
Range of motion exercise
exercise for mobility of a joint
Active assisted range of motion
joint movement in which the patient may be assisted either manually or mechanically thought an arc of movement
Active free range of motion
joint movement in which the patient doesn't receive any support or resistance through an arc of movement (ex. pendulum swing)
Active resisted exercises
joint movement in which an external force resists the movement
Resisted exercise
form of active movement where some form of resistance is provided; increases muscular strength and endurance
Muscular strength
maximal amount of tension an individual can produce in one repitition (low repetitions with heavy resistance)
Muscle endurance
ability to produce and sustain tension over a prolonged period (high repetitions with low resistance)
Isometric resisted exercise
muscle contraction without visible joint movement (pushing against a wall)
Isotonic concentric resisted exercise
muscle contraction that produces or controls joint motion, resulting in muscle shortening (flexing elbow)
Isotonic eccentric resisted exercise
muscle contraction that produces or controls joint motion, resulting in muscle lengthening (extending elbow)
Isokenetic resisted exercise
concentric or eccentric muscle contraction that happens at a constant speed
Flexibility exercise
exercise using stress to change length and elasticity of soft tissue like muscle
Proprioception
one's awareness of position and movement; may be reduced after injury leading to loss of balance and coordination
Proprioceptors
receptors found in skin and joints, respond to stimuli like pressure, stretch and position
Aerobics training
exercise program that uses oxygen as the major energy source
Functional exercise
program that incorporates strength, flexibility, balance and coordination
Closed kinetic chain exercise
movement at one joint affects movement at other joints (ex. a two legged squat)
Open kinetic chain exercise
an exercise where the end limb segment is free (ex. biceps curl)
Aquatic physical therapy
therapeutic use of water for rehabilitation or prevention of an injury
Bad Ragaz method
therapist uses proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques while the patient is suspended by rings in the water
Halliwick method
uses preswim stroke instruction and musculoskeletal rehabilitation