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primary sex organs

what are the primary human gonads?

testes and ovaries


produce sex cells


secrete male steroid sex hormones

estrogen and progesterone

female steroid sex hormones

ducts, glands, and external genitalia

accessory reproductive organs

role of sex hormones

development and function of the reproductive organs
sexual behavior and drives
growth and development and many other organs and tissues


located within the scrotum; produce sperm

how are sperm delivered?

sperm are delivered to the exterior through a system of ducts- epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and urethra

accessory glands of the male reproductive system

seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands; these secretions are emptied into ducts during ejaculation

The scrotum

a sac of skin and superficial fascia; hangs outsid the abdominopelvic cavity; contains paired testes; is 3 degrees lower that core body temp. (temp. necessary for sperm production.)

the scrotum

the temp is kept constant by 2 sets of muscles; smooth muscle that wrinkles scrotal skin is the dartal muscle

cremaster muscles

elevate the scrotum

the testes

surrounded by 2 tunics:
tunica vaginalis
tunica albuginea

tunica vaginalis

derived by the peritoneum

tunica albuginea

a fibrous capsule surrounding the testes


divide the testis into 250-300 lobules, each contains seminiferous tubules (site of sperm production)

where are sperm conveyed through?

seminiferous tubules, tubulus rectus, rete testis, efferent ductules, epididymis

where does the blood supply to the testes come from?

Blood supply comes from the testicular arteries and testicular veins

What encloses nerver fibers, blood vessels, and lymphatics that supply the testes?

the spermatic cord

What produces androgens?

The interstitial (Leydig) cells outside the seminiferous tubules produce androgens.

What are the the external genitalia of the male?

the external genitalia of the male are the scrotum and the penis

What is the male copulatory organ?


What does the penis consist of?

the penis consists of the root and shaft that ends in the glans penis, prepuce, or foreskin, and the crura

What is the prepuce or forskin?

the cuff of loose skin covering the glans penis

What is a circumcision?

A circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis

What is the crura?

The proximal end surrounded by the ischocavernousus muscle; anchors penis to the pubic arch.

What is the makeup of the penis?

the penis is composed of the spongy urethra and 3 cylindrical bodies of erectile tissue (it is a spongy network of connective tissue and smooth muscle with vascular spaces)

What is an erection?

the erectile tissue fills with blood causing the penis to enlarge and become rigid

parts of the male duct system

epidiymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra

head of the epididymis

contains the efferent ductules

duct of the epididymis

microvilli (sterocilia) absorb testicular fluid and pass nutrients to stored sperm

nonmotile sperm

enter the duct of the epididymis-slowly pass through and become motile

what happens to the epididymis during ejaculation

the epididymis contracts expelling sperm into the ductus deferens

location of the ductus deferens

passes through the inguinal canal

ductus deferens

expands to form the ampulla and then joins the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct and propels sperm from the epididymis to the urethra


cutting and ligating the ductus deferens, which is a nearly 100% effective form of birth control


conveys both urine and semen @ different times

3 regions of the urethra

1 prostatic urethra, 2 membranous urethra, 3 spongy penile urethra

seminal vesicles

accessory gland of the male reproductive system; produces viscous alkaline seminal fluid; is 70% of volume of semen; joins the vas deferens to form the ejaculatory duct

contents of the viscous alkaline seminal fluid

fructose, ascorbic acid, coagulating enzyme (vesiculase) and prostiglandins


accessory gland of the male reproductive system; encircles part of the urethra inferior to the bladder; secretes a milky , slightly acid fluid

Prostate fluid

prostate fluid contains citrate, enzymes, and prostate-specific antigen; plays a role in the activation of sperm; enters the prostatic urethra during ejaculation

bulbourethral glands

aka- Cowper's Glands; pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate; prior to ejaculation, produce a thick, clear mucus; lubricates the glans penis; neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra


contains a mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions

contents of semen

contains nutrients (fructose), protects and activates sperm, and facilitates their movement

prostaglandins in semen

decrease the viscosity of mucous in the cervix; stimulates peristalsis in the uterus

Alkalinity of semen

neutralizes the acid in the male urethra and the female vagina; antibiotic chemicals destroy certain bacteria;clotting factors coagulate just after ejaculation, then fibrinolysin; only 2-5 ml of semen are ejaculated


the enlargement and stiffening of the penis from the engorgement of erectile tissue with blood; initiated by sexual stimuli including- touch and mechanical stimulation of the penis; erotic sights, sounds and smells; and can be induced or inhibited by emotions or higher mental activity


a fertilized egg is called a/an __ when the chromosomes of both parents have mingled to form a diploid set.


when the three primary germ layers have formed, an individual is at a stage of development called the __


For the first 8 weeks after ovulation, a conceptus depends primarily on __ nutrition.

chorionic villi

A conceptus is anchored to the endometrium by rootlike outgrowths of the syncytiotrophoblast called ___

ductus arteriosus

Most fetal blood in the pulmonary trunk follows a shunt to the aorta called the __ instead of circulating through the lungs.


Respiratory distress syndrom results from a deficiency of pulmonary __ in the lungs of a premature infant.

congenital anomaly

Any abnormality present at birth is called a _____.


Degenerative change in an organ resulting from aging is called __.


The yolk sac is a vestigial structure with no known function in humans.


Which term can be described as the process by which spermatozoa become capable of fertilizing and egg?


Which term describes the cells produced by cleavage of the zygote?


Which term can be described as any agent that causes anatomical birth defects?

Turner Syndrome

Which term can be described as the results from an XO condition in the zygote?


Which term can be described as the syndrome in which senescence is greatly accelerated?

the ductus venosus

Most fetal blood bypasses the liver by way of a shunt called __

Klinefelter syndrome

An XXY combination of sex chomomsomes produces an individual with

senescence of the sebaceous glands

The skin and hair become drier in old age because of

the placenta

The embryonic membranes include all of the following except

zygote, cleavage, morula, trophoblast, embryo, fetus

Which of these lists the stages of prenatal development in the correct order?


The fine hair on the body of a 5-month-old fetus is

6 weeks

The neonatal period of life is considered to extend to an age of

umbilical vein

The round ligament of the adult liver is a remnant of the __ of the fetus.

the accumulation of CO2 in the blood

During or immediately after birth, an infant is normally stimulated to breathe by

usually develop benign prostatic hyperplasia

Urine retention is a greater problem for elderly men that for elderly women because men

it consists of about 16 to 32 cells

When a developing individual arrives in the uterus


The fetal colon accumulates thick, tarry feces called

the amnion

Which of the following is closest to the fetus?

8 weeks

An individual becomes a fetus at the end of __ weeks of gestation.

Klinefelter syndrome

A sterile male with undeveloped testes, overdeveloped breasts, and unusually long arms and legs is most likely to have

12 to 24

In order for an egg to survive, it must be fertilized within __ hours of ovulation.


Which one of the below is a diploid (2n)?

monozygotic; dizygotic

Twins produced when a single egg is fertilized are called __ twins, and twins produced from two eggs that are ovulated are called __ twins.


The morula lies free in the uterine cavity fcor four to five days, At about 100 cells, the zona pellucida disintegrates and releases the conceptus. The stage is now called the

part of the placenta; the embryo

In the blastocyst, the trophoblast will become __, and the embroblast will become __.


Implantation begins about __ days after ovulation and is completed in about __ week (s).

human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG); chorion

The trophoblast secretes __ and develops into a membrane called the __.


If the blastocyst implants in the uterine tube instead of the uterus, the pregnancy is called

14 to 15 weeks

In amniocentesis, a sample of amniotic fluid is removed, and the fetal cells are analyzed,. Over 20 congenital conditions can be identified by this procedure. Amniocentesis is best done during what time frame of pregnancy?


The epidermis, nervous system, pituitary, internal and internal ear are derived from the __.


The epithelia of the digestive tract, respiratory tract, urinary bladder, and accessory reproductive and digestive system glands are derived from __.

ductus venosus; ductus arteriosus

In the fetal circulation, the __ bypasses the liver, and the __ bypasses the lungs


A newborn infant is screened for this disorder, which prevents the individual from producing the amino acid tyrosine, a critical amino acid for the formation of melanin, EP, NE, thyroid hormones and dopamine.

IgG; IgA

The immune reponses of a neonate are weak. However, the mother supplies __ through the placenta and __ through the colostrum.


Jaundice is common in prenates, especially premature babies because of the buildup in the blood of


The release of an egg from the ovary is called __.


The constricted part of the uterus that protrudes into the vagina is called the __.


Attachment of the conceptus to the uterine wall is called __.


__ Is a hormone secreted by the ovary that selectively suppresses FSH secretion.


Follicles and oocytes develop during a portion of the ovarian cycle called the ___ phase.


In the luteal phase, the ovaries secrete mainly ___, which stimulates glycogen synthesis and mucus secretion in the uterus.


Hyperemesis gravidarum is a state of severe __ early in pregnancy.

giving birth

Parturition is the process of__.


An adolescent girl's growth of axillary hair and apocrine glands is stimulated by androgens.


Most girls do not ovulate during the first year of menstration.


Estrogen is a hormone that increases the incidence of certain types of breast cancer.


A woman's blood cholesterol tends to rise after menopause.

uterine tube

Which term can be described as the site of fertilization?

anterior pituitary

Which term can be describes as the source of prolactin and lutinizing hormones?


Development of a girl's breasts at puberty is called

corpus luteum

The second half of the menstral cycle is regulated largely by


Pregnancy tests are based on the detection of ___ in the urine.

the mons pubis

Which of these is not included in the female vestibule?

greater vestibular

The__ glands of the female are homologus to the bulbourethral glands of the male.

the fundus

The superior curvature of the uterus is called


Ovulation is triggered by:

GnRH secretion

All of the following processes are important in follicular development. Which one occurs first?

endometrial necrosis

Which of these is a consequence of the ischemic phase of the uterine cycle?


Sterility may result from uncorrected __, or undescended testes.

seminiferous tubules

Spermatozoa are produced in minute ducts called__.


Until ejaculation, most sperm are stored in the __.


About 30% of the semen is produced by the __, a medial gland that encloses part of the urethra.

systentacular sertoli

The blood- testis barrier is formed by tight junctions between the __ cells of the testis.


A sperm penetrates an egg by means of enzymes from its __.


The testes and ovaries are collectively called the gametes.


The male scrotum is homologous to the female labia majora.


Sperm heads are embedded in the sustentacular cells until the spermatozoa are mature.

mesonephrenic duct

Which term can be described as the Embryonic precursor of the male reproductive tract?

nitric acid

The inability to produce __ would result in impotence.


Which term can be described as a male secondary sex characteristic?

spermatic cord

Which term can be described as the cord that guides the descending testes into the fetal scrotum?

production of the larger gamete

When all sexually reproducing species of animals are considered, the one characteristic that most defines a female is __.

the sperm

The genetic sex of a child is determined by __.


Which of the following is/are female secondary sex organ(s)?

causes regression of the parameonephric ducts

Mullerian-inhibiting factor __.

the Y chromosome

Testis-determining factor is found in or on __.


Which of the following is an androgen?

the efferent tubules

To get from the testis to the epididymis, sperm must pass through ___.

prostate gland(s)

Men only have one ___ but two of all of the rest of these.

the pampiform plexus

The heat exchanger that prevents afferent blood from overheating the testes is__.


Mitochondria are found in the __ of the spermatozoon.

the prepuce

The foreskin of the penis is called __.

the epididymis

Until ejaculation, sperm are stored mainly in ___.

a primary spermatocyte

The cell in spermatogenesis that undergoes meosis I is __.


A spermatozoon secretes enzymes from its __ to penetrate the egg.


The energy for sperm motility comes from __.


__ is the accumulation of nitrogenous wastes in the blood.


Each kidney has one million or more functional units called __.


__ is a hormone that regulates sodium reabsorption by the distal convoluted tubule.

ADH antidiurethic hormone

__ is a hormone that regulates water permeability of the collecting duct.


Urine formation begins with the filtration of fluid from a spheroid capillary bed called the ___.

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