AP Bio Midyear Review

The most important function of dna
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Terms in this set (145)
In meiosis the process of synapsis involvesHomologous chromosomes pairing up to form tetradsDuring crossing-over, portions of chromatidsbreak off and attach to nonsister chromatidsIf an organism has a diploid or 2N number of 12, how many chromosomes would you expect to find in the organism's gametes6A mammal's somatic cell contains 6 chromosomes. How many different combinations of chromosomes are possible in its gametes?8During meiosis in a human male, the original diploid cell gives rise to ______ haploid cells with ______ chromosomes in each cell.4,23The cell formed through fertilization is called azygoteA mass of cancer cells that invades an organ. If a person is to have this type of cells they are considered to have cancerMalignant tumorThe spread of cancer beyond the original sitemetastasisThe conversion of a normal cell to a cancer celltransformationFor a chemotherapeutic drug to be useful for treating cancer cells, what is most desirable?It interferes with rapidly dividing cells.ChromatinSubstance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histonesChromatidEach half of the chromosome (sister)CentromereArea where the chromatids of a chromosome are attachedChromosomesthreadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genesnonspecific defenses includeSkin, sweat, lysozyme, macrophages, inflammatory responseinnate immunityAn active immediate response upon infectionThe skin acts as a defense against infection byForming a physical barrierMucus serves as a nonspecific defense to pathogens byTrapping pathogensIn the innate immune system, what protein molecule inhibits the reproduction of viruses within cellsInterferonPhagocytes such as neutrophils and macrophagesIngest and kill pathogensAdaptive/acquired immunity is based primarily onPathogen specific recognitionThe humoral immune response (HIR) is primarily designed to defend againstExtracellular pathogensLymphocytes have on their surface a specific cell surface receptor which allows them to recognize a specific antigen. This molecule is aSurface immunoglobinIn order to become activated, a B cell or T cell must recognize a specific antigen and be stimulated to divide byCytokinesClonal selection of b cells activated by antigens leads to production ofPlasma cells that secrete antibodies specific for the antigenWhat site plays a key role in the maturation and development of T cellsThymusT cells have antigen receptors thatBind to antigen fragments in association with MHC on antigen presenting cellsWhich cell type plays a key role as an APC (antigen presenting cell)MacrophageWhich kind if t cells regulate the immune response by producing cytokines to activate the immune systemHelper t cellsThe primary function of cytotoxic t cells (CTLs) is toKill virus infected cellsA man contracts the same flu strain for the second time in a single winter season. The second time he experiences fewer symptoms and recovers more quickly. Which cells are responsible for this rapid recoveryMemory cellsJenner's successful use of cowpox virus as a vaccine against the smallpox virus is due to the fact thatCowpox and smallpox share similar antigenic epitopesWhich immunoglobulin is present in relatively low concentrations in sera, but is important in allergic reactionsIgEIn the human disease lupus there is an immune reaction against a patient's ow DNA from broken or dying cells, which categorizes lupus asAn autoimmune diseaseA typical virus consists ofa protein capsid and a nucleic acid coreViruses can reproduceonly within host cellsCertain viruses can have reverse transcriptase, an enzyme thatSynthesizes DNA and RNAThe primary reason the animal viruses infect only specific types of host cells or have a specific species host range isThe host cell must have specific receptors for the virusWhat can be effective in preventing the onset of a viral infection in humansGetting vaccinatedInfection with HIV may lead to AIDS due to the death of _____ cells, which causes the immune system to collapseT helper cellsHIVhuman immunodeficiency virusAIDSacquired immune deficiency syndromeIn advantage of a light microscope versus an electron microscope is that the light microscopeCan view living cellsWho was the first person to view living cells with a microscopeVan leeuwenhoekWho is the first person to view plant cells with the microscopeSchleidenWho was the first person to view animal cells with a microscopeSchwannWhich type of electron microscope produces 3-D images of the cell surfaceScanning electron microscopeThe maximum size to which a cell may grow is limited mainly by the cell'ssurface to volume ratioThe smallest unit that can carry on all the functions of life is aCella cell component that performs specific functions in the cellorganelleThe cell membrane is primarily composed ofphospholipidsThe nucleusRegulates cell activitiesThe nucleolus functions in the synthesis and assembly ofRibosomesThe membrane surrounding the nucleus is called theNuclear membraneThe function of the ribosome is toSynthesize proteinCells synthesized in a cell and exported out of this so when you pass through theEndoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatusA cell with a predominance of free ribosomes is most likelyproducing primarily cytoplasmic proteins.The organelle that modifies sorts and packages proteins for secretion is theGolgi apparatusThe liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and therefore abundant in liver cells?Smooth ERThe Golgi apparatus has a polarity or sidedness to which structure and function. Which of the following statements correctly describes this polarity-transport vesicles fuse with one side of the Golgi apparatus and leave from the opposite side -proteins in the membrane of the golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side to the other -lipids in the gogli membrane may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the golgi to the other -soluble proteins in the interior of the golgi may be sorted and modified as they move across the golgiWhich organelle is the primary site of ATP synthesis in eukaryotic cellsmitochondrionWhat is not a characteristic of both chloroplasts and mitochondriaThey are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellsCyanide binds to at least one molecule involved in producing ATP. If a cell is exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide will be found within themitochondriaThe evolution of eukaryotic cells is most likely involvedendosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell-the smaller aerobic bacterium evolved into mitochondriaIn cells, which of the following can function to give shape, enable movement, and anchor organelles?Microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate fibersIn what way did the various membranes of the eukaryotic cells differCertain proteins are unique to each membraneDiffusion and osmosis are examples ofPassive transportCarrier proteins are important infacilitated diffusion and active transportCells may release large molecules such as proteins into the environment by having their vesicles fuse with the cell membrane in a process calledExocytosisMolecules or particles that are too large to be moved through the cell membrane can be transported into the cell byEndocytosisActive transportMovement of a substance against its concentration through the release of energy from ATPThe sodium potassium pump-Helps establish an electrochemical gradient across the membrane - Concentrates the sodium on the outside of the membrane -Utilizes a carrier protein into chemical energy -Is present in the plasma membraneMolecules involved in transport such as carrier proteins, transport proteins, and pumps depend on the ability of a protein carrier molecule to change itsShapeThe primary function of polysaccharides attached to the glycoproteins and glycolipids of animal cell membranes isto mediate cell-to-cell recognitionWhat is the greatest advantage of having multiple steps in a transduction pathwayHaving multiple steps provides for greater possible amplification of a signalThe breakdown of organic compounds such as glucose to produce ATP is known asCellular respirationThe first pathway of cellular respiration isglycolysisCellular respiration in the absence of oxygen is calledanaerobic respirationDuring glycolysis, when each molecule of glucose is catabolized to two molecules of pyruvate, most of the potential energy contained in glucose isretained in the two pyruvatesA major function of fermentation is toRegenerate NADBefore the Krebs cycle can proceed, pyruvic acid must be converted toAcetyl CoAThe electron transport chain is able to convert energy stored in what two products of the citric acid cycle into ATPNADH and FADH2Most of the ATP synthesize in aerobic respiration is made duringOxidative phosphorylation (ETC + chemiosmosis)What molecule acts as the final electron except for in the electron transport chain during aerobic respirationOxygenYou have a friend who lost 5 kg (about 10 pounds) of body mass on a regimen of strict diet and exercise. How did the fat leave their bodyIt was released as CO2 and H2OAn organism such as a plant that is able to produce its own energy and organic molecules is called anAutotrophWhat are products of light dependent reactions of photosynthesis that are later utilized in the Calvin cycleATP and NADPHThe light dependent reactions take place in thethylakoidThe Calvin cycle of photosynthesis begins and ends with what five carbon molecule which fixed CO2 and is recycledRuBPThe Calvin cycle (light independent reactions) takes place in theStromaOrganic compounds that can be made from the products of the Calvin cycle includeCarbohydrates, amino acids, and lipidsIn plant cells, synthesis of ATP by the chemiosmotic mechanism occurs duringBoth photosynthesis and respirationWhat best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respirationRespiration runs the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis in reverseDuring cell division, the DNA in a eukaryotic cell is tightly packed and coiled into structures calledchromosomesIn eukaryotic cells, the process by which chromosomes are equally divided and distributed to the daughter cells is calledMitosisDuring metaphase what event occursChromosomes line up at the center of the cellDuring anaphase what event occursChromosomes begin to move apartDuring prophase what event occursDNA chromatin condenses to chromosomesDuring telophase what event occursNuclear membrane formsThe cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cells divide in a process calledCytokinesisWhen viewing cells under a light microscope, the presence of which cell structure allows one to determine that sells undergoing cell division or plant cellsCell plateProteins that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, and that show fluctuations in concentrations during the cell cycle, are calledcyclinsWhat best describes cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)CDK is present throughout the cell cycle and is an enzyme that attaches phosphate groups to other proteinsThe complexity in variety of organic molecules is due toThe chemical versatility of carbon atomsWhat best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysisDehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis reactions break down polymersWhat type of monomer makes up a polysaccharideMonosaccharidesAnimal store most of their energy in the form ofGlycogenWhat category is the most inclusiveCarbohydratesWhat monomer makes up a proteinamino acidsWhich bonds are created during the formation of the primary structure of a proteinpeptide bondsThere are 20 different amino acids. What makes one amino acid different from anotherdifferent side chains (R groups) attached to a central carbonChanging a single amino acid in a protein consisting of 325 amino acids wouldalways alter the primary structure of the protein, sometimes alter the tertiary structure of the protein, and sometimes affect its biological activityWhat does a protein lose when it denaturesIt's 3D shape (conformation)A triglyceride consists of three molecules of fatty acids and one molecule ofGlycerolWhat description best fits the class of molecules known as nucleotidesa nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugarThe basis for almost all cellular work is the ____ of another molecule by ATP to drive a chemical reactionPhosphorylationWhat describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones for the production of energyCatabolismWhat is true for anabolic pathwaysThey consume energy to build up polymers from monomersWhat is true of the metabolism and it's entirety of all organismsMetabolism consist of all the chemical reactions in an organismWhy is ATP in important mall you in metabolismIt provides energy couple in between exergonic and endergonicZinc, and essential trace element for most organisms, is present in the active site of the enzyme carboxypeptidase. The enzyme is a single polypeptide and the zinc is necessary for the enzyme to be active. The zinc most likely functions as aCofactor necessary for enzyme activityHow might an amino acid change at a site distant from the active site of the enzyme alter the enzyme substrate specificityBy changing the shape of the proteinAllosteric enzyme regulation is usually associated withan enzyme with more than one subunitSome of the drugs used to treat HIV patients are competitive inhibitor's of the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme. Unfortunately, the high mutation rate of HIV means that the virus rapidly acquires mutations with amino acid changes that make them resistant to these competitive inhibitor's. Where in the reverse transcriptase enzyme would such amino acid changes most likely occur in drug resistant virusesAt or near the active siteThe mechanism in which the end product of the metabolic pathway inhibits an earlier step in the pathway is most precisely described asfeedback inhibitionWhat describes enzyme cooperativityA substrate molecule bound to an active site of one subunit promote substrate binding to the active site of other subunitsThe bodies tendency to maintain a constant and optimal internal environment is termedHomeostasisHomeostasis typically relies on negative feedback because positive feedbackdrives processes to completion rather than to a balance pointIn a negative feedback system, the end product typicallyInhibits the first stepIn a survivably cold environment, an ectotherm is more likely to survive an extended period of food deprivation than would an equally sized endotherm because the ectotherminvests little energy in temperature regulationMost types of communication between cells utilizethe release of chemical signals by the cell sending the message.Organs and glands that produce most of the hormones in the body are calledEndocrine glandsThe reason that the steroid hormone aldosterone affects only a small number of cells in the body is thatOnly its target cells contain aldosterone receptorsThe hormones insulin and glucagon are considered to be antagonistic because their actions have what type of affectOppositeDiabetes type one is caused byLack of insulin