What's the function of intercalated cells in the distal tubules?
H secretion and K & HCO3 reabsorption
A 56-year-old lady presented to the clinic with a history of urine leakage that happened while she was exercising. What type of urinary incontenince is this?
As blood in vasa recta is flowing into the depths of medullary, what's going to happen?
It gains solutes and loses water (becomes hypertonic)
Voiding lower urinary tract symptoms include which of the following?
Hormonal therapy is most effective with which type of prostate cancer?
Which of the following represents the infantile micturition center?
Sacral micturition reflex center
A 50-year-old man patient was treated for his resistant hypertension. Later on, he developed some enlarged tender breast tissue. What drug is he likely using?
Which of the following drugs has a preventive role in acute mountain sickness?
The elevation behind the urethral opening in the bladder is created by superior extension of which part of the prostate?
Hyponatremic dehydration occurs in which of the following conditions?
Salt and water loss with only water replacement
What ions predominate in the interstitial fluid?
Na and Cl
Prostate cancer is associated with deficiency of which of the following vitamins?
Which of the following contributes to the production of concentrated urine?
Decreased blood flow to medullary tissue
The use of which of the following represents a contraindication for use of PDE-5 inhibitors?
Nitrates (A phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor is a drug used to block the degradative action of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 on cyclic GMP in the smooth muscle cells lining the blood vessels supplying the corpus cavernosum of the penis.)
A 45-year-old male patient presents with signs that made suspect he has urethral injury. They weren't able to insert the catheter. What's the most suitable imaging modality to assess his condition?
A patient presents to the clinic with Hematuria. You suspect him to have renal mass. What's the modality of choice to start investigating the patient's condition with?
Renal ultrasound with Doppler
Which of the following decreases potassium excretion?
Which of the following is an action of aldosterone?
Increases ENaC (Epithelial sodium channel) activity at distal tubules
Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the rate limiting step in androgen biosynthesis
Androgens affect carbohydrates and fast metabolism in what way?
Stimulate citric acid cycle
Which of the following is ideally used to measure GFR?
Which of the following has the highest clearance?
In which part of the renal collecting system does the tubular fluid have the same tonicity or osmolality as the plasma?
Excess in which of the following can cause hypertension and hypervolemia (hypernatremia)?
An IPSS score of > 19 indicate which of the following?
Which of the following increases the GFR in a normal healthy adult?
Increased hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries
Which of the following combination therapy is most suitable for patients with voiding lower unready tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)?
Tamsulosin and Dutasteride
Which of the following diuretics should be avoided in patients having an allergy to sulfa-containing drugs?
Androgen produced from:
Rate limiting enzyme in synthesis of androgens:
Action of androgen:
synthesis of glucose from seminal vesicle
Which of the following decreases K excretion via principle cells?
Increased Na reabsorption across the proximal nephron
Which of the following factors is increased to cause penile erection?
Blood flow from hypogastric arterial system
IPSS score > 8 categorizes LUTS severity as:
Which of the following is the cause of edema due to liver disease?
Deceased oncotic pressure in glomeruli
Which of the following is the main stimulus to activate thirst center and ADH release?
A patient has serum creatinine of 200 and creatinine clearance of 38. He's in a steady state. What do you think about the performance or accuracy of Creatinine clearance in this case
Overestimates the GFR
The main goal in treating neurogenic bladder is:
To preserve renal function
An indication for surgical therapy of BPH?
Failure of medical therapy
Which part of the nephron is impermeable to water?
The radiologic study for a 64-year-old male presenting with painless microscopic hematuria is:
CT with IV contrast
Increase in which of the following will stimulate renin release?
Which of the following lies directly anterior to the left kidney?
A 65-year-old patient suffers a vascular cerebral infarction. He then develops a neurogenic bladder. How would you classify this etiology?
Which of the following is an event in PCT?
H is anti-ported against Na
Which of following causes bladder neck contraction and detrusor muscle relaxation upon stimulation?
Hypogastric plexus (Sympathetic supply)
Pulsatile contraction of which muscle is responsible for the ejection of sperms?
Best imaging tool for ureteric stones is:
The highest amount of water re-absorption occurs in:
The fluid leaving loop of Henli is: A- Hyper-tonic
The action of ADH is mediated by which second messenger system ?
The exchange of salts between the ascending limb of vasa recta and the ISF is?
Which Of the following is not a part of the filtration membrane?
Parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule
Which of the following is a component in the ultrafiltrate and the plasma?
Macula densa is found in which of the following?
Which of the following kidney structures would be palpable in Bimanual Examination on a normal adult?
The kidneys receive blood supply from the renal artery. Which lumbar Vertebra is at that level?
44 year old male patient presenting with gross hematuria and right flank pain. He is suspected to have renal stones. Which of the following is the best imaging modality?
Which of the following represents a right to the consumer of healthcare services?
Involvement in decision making
Which of the following is considered a portal of entry in the chain of infection?
Most of the filtered potassium is reabsorbed in which part of the renal tubules?
The plasma level that saturates Transport Maximum for a transport system is?
The only part of the renal tubular system that reabsorbs sodium passively is?
Thin ascending loop of Henle
Which of the following is an example of secondary active transport in the renal tubular system?
The movement of water and solutes from interstitial fluid into peri tubular capillaries follows:
Which of the following is true regarding urine formation?
Secretion is movement of fluid that resembles plasma into the tubular system
Which of the following is the major anion in intracellular fluids?
Which of the following is true regarding osmolarity in normal conditions?
Interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid osmolarity are equal
Which of the following represents an insensible mode of fluid loss?
Immediate compensation to excessive fluid loss is mediated by?
Increase in cardiac output
Which of the following is NOT a component in the long term regulation of blood pressure?
The main clinical presentation of prostate cancer is:
A 75 year old patient with prostate cancer in only one lobe of the prostate and without extraprostatic extension. What stage of CaP is this patient?
1st line investigation for screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer?
DRE + PSA
The most important long term complication of radical prostatectomy is:
Hormone therapy is reserved as 1st line for palliative treatment at which stage of prostate cancer?
In case of injury to spinal cord level T9, which of the following is NOT a feature of pathologic voiding that would occur?
Which of the following is true regarding the micturition reflex?
Somatic fibers are responsible for contraction of external urethral sphincter
Stimulation of parasympathetic fibers causes contraction of the detrusor muscle. This action is mediated by activation of which receptors?
Which of the following drugs is used as a preventative measure for acute mountain sickness?
Which of the following is a Thiazide-like Diuretic?
Ischiocavernosal muscle contraction occurs in which phase of penile erection?
What drug causes Gynecomastia?
Potassium Sparing Diuretics
Detumescence and ejaculation are mediated by:
The initial obligatory event in penile erection is:
Psychogenic Erectile dysfunction will occur with:
Sudden loss of function
which of the following is true regarding surgical treatment of BPH?
Retrograde ejaculation occurs in 75% of cases
Which of the following is considered as a storage LUTS?
Correction of severe symptomatic hyponatremia should be performed at an appropriate rate of 6- 12 mEq/L in the first 24 hours and 18 mEq/L or less in the 48 hours that follow. If those standards were not applied and the electrolyte imbalance was corrected rapidly, what is the major complication that could give rise to quadriplegia and locked-in syndrome?
Central Pontine Myelinolysis (Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome)