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Mexican War Major Battles/Events

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Battle of Palo Alto
First major battle of the Mexican-American War Fought near modern-day city of Brownsville, Texas. A force of some 3,700 Mexican troops - most of the Army of The North - led by General Mariano Arista engaged a force of approximately 2,300 United States troops - the Army of Occupation led by General Zachary Taylor.
In the disputed land between the Rio Grande (Río Bravo) and the Nueces River, Mexican Army engage an American army attempting to lift the Siege of Fort Texas. Americans won this battle.

May 8,1846
Battle of Resaca de Palma
United States General Zachary Taylor engaged the retreating forces of the Mexican Ejército del Norte ("Army of the North") under General Mariano Arista. United States troops were victorious and forced the Mexicans out of Texas.

May 9, 1846
Declaration of War
President James Polk immediately called for the capture California from the Mexicans. California had been a territory that Polk had desired ever since the annexation of Texas in 1845, and when war with Mexico broke out, he saw the perfect opportunity to take hold of the land he wanted. The U.S. Pacific Squadron was given the order to occupy every important port and city in California, with force if necessary.

May 13, 1846
Bear Flag Revolt
A small group of American settlers in California rebelled against the Mexican government and proclaimed California an Independent Republic.

June-July, 1846
Battle of Monterey, CA
The United States captured this California town unopposed.

July 7, 1846
Battle of Yerba Buena, CA
The U.S. Navy captured and occupied a town located at present-day San Francisco, California without firing a shot.

July 10, 1846
Battle of Los Angeles
Twenty men under the command of Cerbulo Varela exchanged shots with the Americans at Government House, which ignited Los Angeles. On September 24, 150 Californios, organized under José María Flores, a Mexican Officer attacked American forces under Gillespie. Gillespie's forces were effectively besieged and surrendered on Sept 29th. Terms called for Gillespie's men to leave Los Angeles, which they did on September 30, 1846, and boarded the American merchant vessel Vandalia. Flores quickly cleared remaining American forces in southern California.

Sept 22-30, 1846
Battle of Chino
24 Americans led by Benjamin D. Wilson, who were hiding in the adobe house of Rancho Santa Ana del Chino, were captured by a group of about 50 Californios.

Sept 26-27, 1846
Battle of Dominguez Rancho
Californios, led by José Antonio Carrillo, defeat 203 US Marines led by U.S. Navy Captain William Mervine.

Oct 7, 1846
Battle of San Pasqual
This series of military skirmishes (near present-day San Diego, CA) ended with both sides claiming victory, and the victor of the battle is still debated. General Stephen W. Kearny's US Army of the West, along with a small detachment of the California Battalion led by a Marine Lieutenant, engaged a small contingent of Californios and their Presidial Lancers Los Galgos (The Greyhounds), led by Major Andrés Pico. After U.S. reinforcements arrived, Kearny's troops were able to reach San Diego.

Dec 6, 1846
Capture of Tucson
The Mormon Battalion captures a town in present-day Southern Arizona (Sonora) and occupies her for a day or two.

Dec 16, 1846
Battles of San Gabriel and La Mesa
A series of battles for the control of Los Angeles. Californio militia, commanded by General José María Flores, held Los Angeles. U.S. forces led by Kearny and Stockton are able to enter Los Angeles.

Jan 8-9, 1847
Battle of Buena Vista
Zachary Taylor fights Antonio López de Santa Anna south of Saltillo, Mexico in one of the largest battles of the war. Santa Anna retreats, but Taylor doesn't pursue him further south.

Feb 22-23, 1847
Battle of Vera Cruz
Beginning with Marine landings, U.S. forces besiege and gradually encircle Mexican Marines and Coast Guard in vicious twenty-day siege.

March 9-29, 1847
Battle of Cerro Gordo
The battle saw Winfield Scott's United States troops outflank Antonio López de Santa Anna's larger Mexican army, driving it from a strong defensive position.

April 18, 1847
Battle of Mexico City
Included are major actions at the battles of Molino del Rey and Chapultepec, culminating with the fall of Mexico City. The U.S. Army under Winfield Scott scored a major success that ended the war (although battles continued until Mar 1848.)

-Sep 8-15, 1847
Battle of Chapultepec
A battle between the United States Marine Corps and US Army against Mexican forces holding a castle in Mexico City. The castle, sitting atop a 200-foot tall hill, was an important position for the defense of the city. In this area, Gen Scott's US Army totaled 7,200 men, and Gen Santa Anna's Mexican Army totaled about 15,000. This battle saw about 2,000 US troops attack 880 Mexican troops and take the castle in a 60-90 minute battle.
Los Niños Héroes (six famous Mexican teenage military cadets) are killed and pass into legend. Some captured San Patricios members executed during the battle.

-Sep 13, 1848
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of land that makes up all or parts of present-day Texas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming.(525,000 sq. miles) in exchange for $15 million

Signed: 2 February 1848
Effective: 30 May 1848
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