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28 terms

Unit 3 - Chapter 1 - Biological Macromolecules

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Polypeptide
A macromolecule composed of many peptide units, joined together with peptide bonds.
Carbohydrate
An organic substance composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio (CH2O)n
Monosaccharide
A carbohydrate composed of a single sugar unit eg. Glucose
Disaccharide
A carbohydrate composed of two sugar units eg. Lactose
Oligosaccharide
A carbohydrate composed of several sugar units.
Polysaccharide
A carbohydrate composed of many sugar units Eg. Cellulose, starch, glycogen
Starch
A polysaccharide formed by plants for energy storage. Eg. In potatoes, rice, pasta.
Cellulose
A complex polysaccharide formed by plants that is indigestible to humans.
Glycogen
A complex polysaccharide formed by animals for energy storage.
Condensation reaction
The way that single units of many biological molecules bond together to form macromolecules, releasing a water molecule.
Lipids
Fats, oils, waxes etc composed of fatty acid units
Phospholipid bilayer
The cell membrane composed of two layers of fatty acids with phosphate molecules.
Nucleic acids
DNA and RNA composed of nucleotide sub units. (sugar unit, phosphate unit and nitrogenous base unit)
Deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA - composed of A, T, C and G - consisting of sugar/phosphate backbone and nitrogenous base pairs.
Ribonucleic acid
RNA - consisting of A, U, C and G - transfer, messenger and ribosomal.
Proteins
A polypeptide consisting of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen in amino acid sub units.
Nitrogenous bases
Cytosine & Guanine and Adenine & Thymine (in DNA) & Uracil (in RNA).
Triglycerides
A glycerol molecule with three fatty acid chains
Apoptosis
Programmed cell death.
Hydrophilic
Substances that dissolve in water - "water-loving".
Hydrophobic
Substances that repel water -"water hating".
Polymer
Substances made up of many sub-units, called monomers.
Monomers
Single units that join together to make polymers.
Primary structure of proteins
Order of amino acid units that make up a polypeptide.
Secondary structure of proteins
Alpha-helix or beta-pleating of polypeptides.
Tertiary structure of proteins.
Folding of polypeptides due to disulphide bonds.
Quarternary structure of proteins
Groups of globular proteins consisting of more than one amino acid chain.
Proteome
The complete set of proteins produced by an organism.